Learning outcomes of the course unit
1.KNOLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING. The first goal of this course is to
provide students the knowledge of the main technological steps to
manufacture electronic and optoelectronic devices to be used in different
applications, and, at the same time, to give them the tools for
understanding the most of electronic processes, with special attention to
the effects of the technological choices on the final device performance,
mainly focusing on:
• the analysis of the limits of technology and of their impact on the final
performance of electronic devices;
• the concepts of scaling and integration and the related issues;
• the study of the state-of-the-art MOSFETs, memories, interconnection
lines which will be analyzed from the point of view of materials,
technologies and processes;
• the basic operating principles of devices beyond traditional planar
CMOS, as FINFET, strained Silicon , etc. ;
• the study and comparison of the main technologies used in solar cell
p r o d u c t i o n s .
A second goal is to provide students the knowledge of some
technological applications at system level:
• to capture energy from the environment and to transform it into
electrical energy (Energy Harvesting);
• to generate, transmit and store energy in the Smart-grids;
with special attention to the way energy is produced and stored and to
the related issues.
2. APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING. The student will learn
to use a CAD tool for the design of electronic component at device level.
In particular the student will be able to use the acquired knowledge and
• to model and simulate the thermal and/or electrical and/or optical
behavior of an electronic device;
• to analyze the impact of different factors as the geometry, doping,
material choice etc. on the final performance of the electronic device;
• to define the design requirements to obtain the better performance for
a specific electronic device.
3. SOFT-SKILLS USAGE. The laboratory activity, usually carried on in small group, is also a mean to stimulate the student soft skills, that is the ability to work in group, to interact effectively with coworkers and teacher , to schedule the work and optimize the time required by the activity.
Course contents summary
I) Silicon planar process: the different steps of silicon planar process are
analyzed showing the main technological constraints and the
improvement capabilities; some important processes are studied in detail
(i.e. CMOS process).
II) The scaling, integration and time to market concepts in semiconductor
industry are presented starting from ITRS (International Technology
Roadmap for Semiconductors), with special attention to MOSFET devices,
semiconductor memories, and interconnection lines which are analyzed
from the point of view of materials, technologies, process techniques and
III) Photovoltaic modules: some of the main photovoltaic technologies are
analyzed, and special emphasis is given to silicon and thin film solar cells.
IV) Smart-grid: working definitions and fundamental components of the
distributed generation and storage of energy in the "smart" electrical grid
V) Some of the main techniques, technologies and applications of energy
harvesting are presented.
VI) Advanced CAD tools to analyze and design some of the described
devices are used (i.e. modelling of solar cells).
I) Silicon planar process:
Silicon wafer production;
L i t h o g r a p h y ;
Doping techniques: diffusion and ion implantation;
Deposition technique of dielectric and conductor materials ;
E t c h i n g ;
P a c k a g i n g .
II) Scaling, integration and time to market:
Ideal and real scaling: definition, limits and comparison;
Short channel effect: technological and architectural solutions.
Technological processes: NMOSFET, CMOS, BJT, SOI MOSFETs.
III) Solar cells:
Crystalline and amorphous silicon-based solar cells and modules;
Thin film solar cells: CIGS and CdTe based solar cells.
III-V multi-junctions solar cells
IV) Energy harvesting: from vibration, solar energy, piezoelectricity.
V) Smart-grids: working definitions, fundamental components, renewable
energy sources integration, energy storage.
VI) Analysis and design of electronic devices with the Synopsys-
Sentaurus tcad tool.
Topics treated in parts I-II (see section "Contenuti" ):
1) S.M.Sze, "ULSI technology", Mcgraw hill, 1996
2) S.M.Sze, "VLSI technology", McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1983
3) G. Soncini, "Tecnologie microelettroniche", Boringhieri, 1986.
Topics treated in part III:
4)A.Luque and S. Hegedus, "Handbook of photovoltaic science and engineering" , 2.ed , Wiley, 2011
Topics treated in part IV:
5) J. Momoh, “Smart Grid: fundamentals of design and analysis”, Wiley,
Topics treated in part V:
6) T. J. Kazmierski, S. Beeby, “Energy Harvesting Systems”, Springer,
2 0 1 1 .
Book 1) is the "Physics" library, while all the remaining books are in the "Engineering and Architecture" library.
The course is organized in traditional classroom lessons based on the
topic listed in the course program section. Exercises on the sizing of the
main technological processes introduced during the theoretical part of
the course will be done by the teacher. A CAD tool for the analysis of the
thermal and/or electrical and/or optical analysis of an electronic device
will be used in the parallel laboratory activity.
Assessment methods and criteria
The exam is oral and will verify the knowledge and understanding of the
topics presented during the course: the student will show to have
understood the main techniques and technological issues related to the
production of electronic devices, as well as their usage into electronic
systems. A brief report (max 10 pages) about the laboratory project
assigned by the teacher is also required: this activity can be done by the
single student or by a little group of students (max 3), as decided by the
students themselves. The relation will contain a critical analysis of the
Slides on the topic of the course and prepared by the teacher are
available for the students. The download of the slides from lea.unipr.it is
allowed for registered students.