SKELETAL-MUSCLE SYSTEM , ANTHROPOMETRY AND POSTURAL ASSESSMENT-PART A
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Knowledge and understanding
The course aims to provide students with the fundamental knowledge of the anatomy of the musculoskeletal system and control of motor systems, as well as the fundamentals of posture and the principles of anthropometry
Applying knowledge and understanding
The fundamental knowledge of the anatomy of the musculoskeletal system and control of motor systems, as well as the fundamentals of posture and the principles of anthropometry are applied to physical education
Students must be able to sustain a discussion with elements of human anatomy and evaluate a subject's posture
the student must possess sufficient technical language in anatomy and posture
the student must be able to read a simple scientific text with anatomical content
Course contents summary
Classification of bones, joints and muscles.
Axial and Appendicular components of the skeletal system:
Bones of the skull, Temporo-mandibular joint, muscles of the head and neck and their innervation.
Spine; Anatomy of vertebrae, intervertebral Joints; muscles of the spine, thoracic cage; Ribs and costal cartilages; Sternum; costo-vertebral Joints; respiratory muscles.
Pectoral Girdle: Clavicle; Scapula; sterno-clavicular articulation; shoulder girdle muscles and their innervation.
pelvis, bones and muscles of the lower limb
Applications of diagnostic imaging to the muscolo-skeletal system.
Anthropometry: Anthropometry applied to physical activities and sports: Anthropometric measures and BMI in adults and in children, reference values, the body composition (fat mass and fat free mass); anthropometric techniques.
Posture: The biomechanics. Applications, limitations, definition of physical quantities.
Vectors and decomposition of forces applied to the motion, muscle strength and resistance.
The skeletal muscle levers.
Genres, angle of muscle insertion, coattant and displacement component, moment of force and moment of resistance.
Muscle machines, characteristics and peculiarities, the meaning of the cams.
The biomechanical model of muscle. Contractile unit (sarcomere), the concept of motor unit, muscle shortening velocity, strength, flexibility, muscle spindles, muscle tone and its applications.
Theory of muscles, one, two and polyarticular muscles, the role of muscle fixation, external load and internal load.
Mode of muscle contraction: isotonic, , isokinetic, isometric, concentric and eccentric movement.
Multifactorial aspect of the force.
Coordination skills and conditional (definition) and their mutual interaction.
Plans and the cardinal axes and segmental. Methodological definition of flexion, extension, bending and stretching.
General adaptation syndrome (GAS), adaptations and modifications.
Overload principle, quantification of the year according to the method 1RM and second derivative methods.
Relationship between oxygen consumption and heart rate, anaerobic threshold.
Behavioral aspects of human movement, attitude, posture.
Balance, economy and comfort: postural meaning.
Diaphragmatic mechanics, ventilation, physiological and anatomical dead space.
Ventilation during exercise.
Trattato di Anatomia Umana, Apparato Locomotore (Anastasi et al.) Ed. Edi-Ermes;
Anatomia Umana (Martini et al.) 5° ed, EdiSES;
Valutazione antropometrica in clinica, riabilitazione e sport (Cagnazzo F. e
Cagnazzo R.) Ed. Edi-Ermes; Appunti dalle Lezioni
* “Fisiologia articolare” volume 3 - I. A. Kapandji
escluso dalla pag. 186 alla pag. 191; dalla pag. 200 alla pag. 213; dalla pag. 220
alla pag. 227; dalla pag. 230 alla pag. 245; dalla pag. 248 alla pag. 251
Capitoli indicati secondo l’ultima edizione disponibile all’anno 2003
Letture consigliate e testi di approfondimento:
Weinek: "L'allenamento ottimale"
Parodi, Martinelli: "Il back pain di origine meccanica", Editrice Veneta
McArdle, Katch, Katch: “Fisiologia applicata allo sport”
class lectures and laboratory
Assessment methods and criteria
Oral examination, which is focused on the anatomy of
the muscoloskeletal system, anthropometry, posture and nervous system.