BIOLOGICAL BASES AND TECHNIQUES FOR REGENERATION AND REPAIR
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Learning objectives of the course. To provide students with knowledge about the biological basis of repair and tissue regeneration. It will be particularly examined the role of coagulation and inflammation in the repair and will be provided knowledge on the characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells and their potential in regenerative medicine. Particular emphasis will be placed on the molecular characterization, the nutritional requirements and about the molecular mechanisms of cell differentiation and the regenerative capacity of tissues and organs
Learning outcomes. At the end of the course the student will have acquired the knowledge and understanding of the mechanisms by which repair and tissue regeneration take place. The student will be able to understand the potential of stem cells in the regenerative medicine and will have acquired solid bases to be able to critically evaluate the scientific literature related to tissue repair and regeneration. The knowledge gained during the course will be particularly useful for the understanding of the other topics covered in the degree program and to develop a successful internship.
To understand the contents of the course are required adequate knowledge of Histology, Anatomy, Embryology.
Course contents summary
The first lessons are designed to clarify the complex scenario of tissue repair and to provide fundamental information on the wound repair mechanisms. The following lessons will address the molecular and cellular aspects involved in tissue regeneration to learn about the regenerative potential of the injured tissue, and how to stimulate it. Detail attention will be turned to illustrate the characteristics and potential of the various stem cells.
Wound healing: the role of hemostasis and inflammation. Cytokines and cell repair. Wound healing of the skin. Repair of bone fractures
The regeneration and stem cells
Examples of biological regeneration: the planarian, the salamander, the MRL mouse. Embryonic stem cells: markers for characterization. Nuclear reprogramming: methods and characteristics. The mesenchymal stem cells: characterization, origin, differentiation techniques. Stem cells from fetal adnexa: umbilical cord, Wharton’s jelly, amniotic fluid and placenta.
Stem cells in the adult
Gene expression profile of mesenchymal cells and methods of molecular characterization. Culture and in vitro expansion of mesenchymal cells. Functional characteristics of mesenchymal cells: homing and trafficking. Stem cells in liver regeneration. The stem cells in the regeneration of endocrine disruption. The stem cells in the regeneration of the skin. Stem cells and myocardial regeneration. Endothelial stem cells and vascular repair.
Lectures will be supported by slides and scientific literature, which will be provided to the students.
The course structured in lectures of two hours each. Each meeting will develop one of the topics described in the program with the aid of illustrative material collected in PowerPoint files that, at the end of the course, will be made available to students. The lesson includes a presentation of the teacher who introduces the topic. The topic is then discussed and the Students are encouraged to express their observations. The purpose of providing an opportunity for information and training. At the end of the lesson the teacher makes a summary of the positions emerged and recommended further reading.
Assessment methods and criteria
The examination is oral and is intended to assess, through open-ended questions, the:
-Quality of scientific information acquired;
-Understanding of the information acquired;
- Accuracy and competence in the terminology adopted during the exposure;
At the end of the examination the teacher will formulate a judgment:
A. Excellent knowledge and understanding of the topic. High capacity for critique and analysis of the issues. Mark out of thirty: 30.
B. Good knowledge and understanding of the subject with some serious inaccuracies. Good ability to critique and analysis of the issues. Mark out of thirty: 27-29.
C. Good knowledge and understanding of the subject despite some shortcomings. Ability to critique and analysis of themes: Mark out of thirty: 24-26.
D. Knowledge and understanding of the fully sufficient even if there are obvious gaps. Mark out of thirty: 21-23.
E. Knowledge and understanding of the subject with just enough obvious and serious flaws. Mark out of thirty: 18-20.
“Lode” will be offered to students who have achieved 30/30, for the demonstration of independence of judgment, high communication skills and ability.