LABORATORY MEDICINE TECHNICAL SCIENCES
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The objective of the course is to provide students with the essential knowledge for understanding the basic principles of the laboratory methods for diagnostic investigations and for the critical evaluation of the results for the purposes of the profession of biomedical laboratory technician.
In particular, the course aims to:
- provide adequate knowledge on aspects related to biological, pre-analytical and analytical variabilities;
- provide adequate specific notions on the main immunological techniques used in the clinical analysis laboratory on biological samples;
- provide the basis for understanding the technical and organizational evolution of the clinical analysis laboratory;
- provide adequate knowledge for understanding the principles of interpretation of laboratory test results;
- define the criteria for the evaluation of an analytical system;
- provide the basis for the evaluation of the diagnostic reliability of the laboratory tests either manual, semi-automatic or automatic also in relation to the use of both internal and external Quality Controls;
- define the role of the clinical analysis laboratory in clinical risk management and appropriateness.
The student will demonstrate to understand and be able to independently use the basic concepts of each topic.
In particular, the student will:
- acquire the essential knowledge for a better understanding of the immunological techniques as well as of the diagnostic significance of related results which are of greater relevance to the profession of biomedical laboratory technician;
- possess the essential knowledge relating to pre-analytical error, analytical and biological variabilities, quality control, decision-making and critical values, sensitivity and specificity of laboratory assays;
- be able to understand the main parameters for evaluation of a laboratory test;
- have acquired a basic understanding of the technical evolution and organization of the clinical analysis laboratory.
Passing examinations of Human physiology, clinical biochemistry and clinical molecular biology - I year - and of Clinical microbiology - II
year of the course.
Course contents summary
- Laboratory tests: definition, types and methods of requesting.
- Collection, treatment and storage of biological materials. Properties and characteristics of biological samples.
- Quality control in the clinical analysis laboratory.
- Biological, pre-analitical and analytical variability.
- Analytical characteristics of a diagnostic laboratory assay: accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, reference values, sources of error.
- Basic principles and applications of the main diagnostic immunological techniques: precipitation reaction, immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis and immunofixation, immunofluorescence, agglutination, enzyme immunoassay (ELISA direct, indirect and competitive type, detection strategies, enzymes and substrates), immunocromatographic assay, Western Blot.
Widmann “Interpretazione clinica degli esami di laboratorio”, Ronald A. Sacher and Richard A. McPherson. Edizione italiana a cura di Giancarlo Gazzola, Renata Franchi, Valeria Dall’Asta, Ovidio Bussolati, Roberto Sala.
Lectures accompanied by visual aids will be used to convey critical information on the topics relating to the course content.
Assessment methods and criteria
Learning outcomes will be verified through an oral examination. Questions on the topics relating to the course content will be used to test the student’s knowledge and understanding in the field, and her/his ability to apply the knowledge and understanding in occupational contexts.