VETERINARY CLINICAL OBSTETRICS
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims to enable the student to know and to understand the essential elements of etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnosis and treatment of major pathological conditions of gynecological-obstetric veterinarian. The students of the Master's Degree in Veterinary Medicine will be able to perform a gynecological and an ultrasound examination of the male and female genital system in cattle, equine and pigs. In the bovine / porcine species it is expected that the student will learn the herd clinical management of the herd (pharmacological synchronization and animal clustering).
At the end of the training activity the student will be able to:
- to know and understand: the essential elements of ezio-pathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnostics and therapeutic approach of the major pathologies of clinical gynecological interest, also in order to enable the student to acquire the ability to identify the problems of the herd or individual, related to Condition of animals suffering from pathology of obstetrical-gynecological interest and to prepare an adequate care plan demonstrating communicative abilities and learning abilities; To know and understand the essential elements of managing an artificial fertilization program with fresh, chilled and frozen semen in domestic species; The essential elements of the management of an embryo transfer program in the bovine and equine species; The essential elements of the diagnosis of pregnancy, physiological and pathological pregnancy, and possible therapeutic interventions; The delivery mechanism, childbirth and infant care in domestic animals.
- apply: a survey scheme and the differential diagnosis protocol for diseases of obstetrical and gynecological interest in domestic animals; semeiological survey scheme for obstetric problems;
Discuss a clinical case.
- interpret: case studies related to the reproductive sphere that modify the reproductive state and reproductive capacity, framing them in its therapeutic context; Reproductive problems related to herd management.
- express themselves clearly and with appropriate terms during the description or discussion of concepts relating to the reproduction management of domestic animals;
- Quickly identify the gynecological clinical context of various topics concerning the reproductive sphere and intervene with sufficiently appropriate indications in form and content to make their contribution to the discussion.
- to find and learn independently the scientific, clinical and therapeutic guidelines concerning the reproductive sphere;
- to understand the impact that certain gynecological / andrological diseases have in terms of herd health in a holding;
- develop prevention, prophylaxis and control actions based on new scientific knowledge on reproductive diseases in domestic animals.
Examination of obstetrics, artificial fertilization and andrology, as required by Degree Course Gudelines
Course contents summary
The course aims to enable the student to know and to understand the essential elements of etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnosis and treatment of major pathological conditions of gynecological veterinarian, also in order to enable students to acquire the ability to use knowledge and understanding gained in identifying the problems related to the condition of the herd of animals suffering from the disease of interest in obstetrics and gynecology demonstrating a capacity to learn. In addition, the course aims to provide students with the basis of the manual to be done to make a proper clinical approach to reproductive planning, improve reproductive performance and production of the livestock. The final goal will be to introduce students to the knowledge of the basis for the reproductive management of herds in different species of farm animals, physiology and pathophysiology of reproduction in animals, childbirth, reproductive diseases, which could provide the basis for the proper management and breeding of animals for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the reproductive system.
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology of the Stallion Genital System- Causes of Infertility, Sub-infertility in the stallion : diagnosis and therapy. Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology of the Mare Reproductive System, Reproductive Hormones of the mare (hypothalamic, pituitary, ovarian and other reproductive hormones. Embryo Transfer in the mare. Introduction to Pregnancy Physiology of the mare, Pregnancy Diagnosis in the mare. Methods of pregnancy diagnosis (clinical and laboratory diagnosis). Diseases and accidents of gestation. Abortion. Multiple Pregnancy. Uterine torsion. Therapeutic abortion Introduction to Parturition Physiology. Induction of Delivery. Caesarian Dissection. Hemolytic Icterus. Rupture of Bladder, Hereditary diseases , Peri-partum Diseases and accidents, Post-partum hemorrhages Rupture of the uterus and vagina, Infertility and hypofertility in the Mare, Irregularity of Estrous Cycle and Anaestrus, Ovary alterations, Reproductive System Diseases, Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology of Bovine Male Genital System.Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology of the Cow Reproductive System. Introduction to Reproductive Physiology of the cow. Reproductive Hormones of the cow (hypothalamic, pituitary, ovarian and other reproductive hormones). Physiology of Estrous Cycle, Estrous Cycle. Estrous Synchronization. Techniques for Estrous Synchronization in the cow. Introduction to Pregnancy Physiology, Pregnancy Diagnosis: Methods of pregnancy diagnosis (clinical and laboratory diagnosis).:
Introduction to Parturition Physiology, Induction of Parturition, Caesarian Dissection
Neonatology: Neonatal Asphyxia Congenital Patent Urachus, Meconium Retention, Rupture of Bladder, hereditary diseases Traumas of newborn calf. Peri-partum Diseases and accidents: post-partum hemorrhages , rupture of uterus and vagina, dismetabolic diseases
Infertility and hypofertility in the Cow: infectious diseases, reproductive system diseases, hormonal disturbances , congental and hereditary defects , feeding causes
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology of Canine and Feline Male: GenitalTract, Congenital anomalies, Testicular and Epididymal Acquired Deseases , Neoplasm of testicle, Acute and chronic Orchitis and Epididimitis, Penis and Preputial Acquired Deseases , Prostatic Diseases, Infertility Anatomy and Physiology Introduction to Canine and Feline Female GenitalTract: Estrous Cycle, Vaginal Cytology . Samples Techniques ,Clinical Relevance . Mating: sexual behaviour of the bitch , Artificial insemination, Semen Collection Techniques, Artificial insemination, Gestation physiology, Pregnancy diagnosis, Physiology of normal delivery, Dystocia diagnosis and treatments techniques , Post-partum complications, Endometritis, Sub-involution of placental sites, Mastitis. Induced termination of Pregnancy Infertility in the bitch and cat female , Congenital anatomical defects, Hormonal disturbance , Pyometra, False pregnancy , Estrous postponement and inhibition, Surgical and chemistry methods, ultrasonography: introduction , probes and ultrasound machines, ultrasonography in domestic animals (Equine, Bovine, Canine, Swine)
BOTTARELLI F.: Fertilità e ipofertilità nella bovina. Ed. 'Tep Veterinaria' (1989)
CHRISTIANSEN J.: La riproduzione nel cane e nel gatto.Edizione italiana a cura di F. Cairoli e G. Bono EDI-ERMES (1987)
FELDMAN E. C.: Endocrinologia e riproduzione del cane e del gatto. - Seconda edizione UTET
OEHME F. W., PRIER J. E.: Text Book of Large Animal Surgery. The Williams & Wilkins Company Baltimore (1974)
PARMIGIANI E.: Appunti di clinica osterica veterinaria e note di fecondazione artificiale. Ed. Coop. Universitaria 'Andrei Rublev' (1986)
RICTER, GOTZE: Ostetricia Veterinaria. Edizione italiana a cura di O.Oliva Editoriale Grasso
SLATTER D. H.: Trattato di chirurgia dei piccoli animali. Edizioni SBM Noceto (Parma)
Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital Diseases Roberts Distributed by Edwards Brothers inc. (1971)
OJ Ginther: Ultrasonic imaging and reproduction events in the mare. Equi Services WI 5328 USA
R.S. Youngquist - W. R. Threlfall - CURRENT THERAPY IN LARGE ANIMAL THERIOGENOLOGY, SECOND EDITION ISBN 10: 0-7216-9323-7 ISBN 13: 978-0-7216-9323-1 - 2007.
Seidel G.E. Jr, and Sarah Moore Seidel, 1991. Training manual for embryo transfer in cattle. http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/T0117E/T0117E00.htm#TOC.
Stringfellow D.A., Seidel S.M., 1998. Manual of the International Embryo Transfer Society – Third Edition.
The Students could download PDF files of the lessons of the main obstetric subjects from Elly Platform (http://elly.veterinaria.unipr.it/2017/)
The activities are structured in theoretical and practical lessons. Classroom lessons include Power Point presentations, video projection of clinical case study material. In addition, reference will be made to articles of international scientific nature relating to the topics covered. Discussed topics, will be discussed with students.
For practical purposes, consider the information in the appropriate section.
Teaching language: Italian
Assessment methods and criteria
The summative assessment involves verifying the expected learning outcomes described by D1 and part of those described by D2 and D3 indicators by an oral examination, fundamentally articulated in the discussion of two topics:
theoretical questions aimed at verifying the candidate's knowledge, understanding, judgment ability and communicative ability;
The second topic is practical in assessing the student's ability to read, describe and discuss one or more ultrasound images of gynecological (uterine and ovarian), gestation.
The written test will be evaluated with a 0-30 vote scale. Praise is given in the case of achieving the highest score on each element to which the disciplinary vocabulary is added. An examination will be considered sufficient with at least a total of 18/30
To the students with diagnosis of specific learning disability (DSA) certified under law n. 170/2010, proper specific support will be provided.
9 examination sessions are scheduled throughout the academic year, as reported on ESSE3 platform website. 5 more sessions are scheduled for so called "fuori corso e ripetenti" students. A minimun of 14 days is required between two subsequent examination sessions. The examining board consists of at least two teachers.