GENERAL PATHOLOGY, PHARMACOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Knowledge of the basic elements concerning cell injury and death, tumors and, with greater detail, mechanisms of response to tissue injury (inflammation, hemostasis, tissue repair).
Knowledge of basic elements of bacteriology, virology and transmission of infectious disease. Knowledge of principles of general pharmacology.
Knowledge of neuromuscolar drugs, of drugs used for central and pheripheral nervous system, and of drugs for osteoarticular disease. Capability of applying knowledge to conditions of interest for the physiotherapist.
Course contents summary
Cell injury and cell death. Basic elements of oncology.
Inflammation, hemostasis, tissue repair and their alterations. CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY. General bacteriology. General virology. Transmission of infectiopus diseases. Elements of infectious diseases of interest for physiotherapists. PHARMACOLOGY. Elements of general pharmacology: pharmacodynamics and pharmakinetics. Modifiers of drug effects. Drug toxicity. Special pharmacology: neuromuscolar drugs, pain therapy, antiinflammatory drugs, antirheumatic and antigout drugs.
PATHOLOGY: Cell injury and death: reversible and irreversible injury, intrinsic and extrinsic causes of cell injury, adaptations, types of cell death.
Basic oncology: classification and nomenclature, epidemiological features, benign and malignant tumors, invasivity and metastasis, host-tumor relationships, grading and staging.
Tissue responses to cell injury:
- Inflammation: classification, events and mechanisms, acute and chronic inflammation, cells, mediators, systemic events, inflammatory lesions, derangements on inflammation.
- Hemostasis: phases, defects, thrombosis, embolia, atherosclerosis, infarction.
- Tissue repair. Mechanisms of repair and their alterations.
The prokaryotic cell: general organization, morphology and physiology. Reproduction of microorganisms. The microorganism/host relationship: commensalism, symbiosis, parasitism. Microbial flora. Pathogenicity and virulence.
General characteristics of viruses, Structural and chemical composition of virions,
Phases of the viral replication process.
Transmission of pathogens. Diagnosis of infectious disease.
Basic information on infections of skin, CNS, osteoarticular system.
What is pharmacology. Drugs.
Basic pharmacodynamics: sites and mechanisms of action, agonists and antagonists, partial agonists, the dose-effect relationship. Basic pharmacokinetics:
how drugs reach their site of action, routes of administration, drug adsorption. Drug-protein binding and drug biodistribution.
Drug biotransformation.Drug excretion. Pharmacokinetic parameters: bioavailability, apparent distribution volume, plasma drug half-life, clearance. Conditions modifying drug effects: drug interactions, the importance of patient conditions. Tolerance and resistance. Drug toxicity: collateral and unwanted events.
Neuromuscular drugs: depolarizing and competitive blocking agents, botulinum, central (GABAergic) and preripheral myorelaxing agents.
Drugs for myasthenia gravis: anticholinesterase drugs, steroids, immunosuppressant drugs.
Analgesic drugs: opiates and non-opiate analgesics; local anesthetics.
Antiinflammatory drugs: NSAIDs, non-selective COX inhibitors; COX-2 preferential and COX2-selective NSAIDs; steroids (glucocorticoids). Antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), antigout drugs (colchicine, allopurinol, uricosuric agents).
Drugs for Arthrosis: condroprotective drugs.
Maier e Mariotti "Patologia Generale e Fisiopatologia", McGraw Hill
MICROBIOLOGIA CLINICA: Bendinelli M., Chezzi C., Fumarola D., Pitzurra M. “Microbiologia Medica” Monduzzi Editore
FARMACOLOGIA: Dale, Haylett "Elementi di farmacologia; Compendio per l'esame. Ed. Mediche Scientifiche Internazionali EMSI; Mycek " "Le basi della farmacologia" 3° Edizione Italiana 2007, Zanichelli Editore
Interactive oral lessons
Assessment methods and criteria
No interim evaluation is programmed.
The final evaluation will consist in an oral examination.
Q u e s t i o n s / s t u d e n t : at least 3 (at least one/discipline).
Questions will concern subjects listed in the detailed program.
Failure to answer to one question, or verified uncapability to define
correctly the subject, will prevent the successful completion of the exam.
After the questions concerning each discipline, the examiner will give an evalaution expressed in
m a r k s :
A. Very good knowledge and understanding. Very good capability of
applying knowledge to problems of interest for physiotherapists. Corresponding to 30/30.
B. Good knowledge and understanding. Good capability to apply
knowledge to problems of interest for physiotherapists. Corresponding to 27-29/30.
C. Average knowledge and understanding. Average capability of
applying knowledge to problems of interest for physiotherapists. Corresponding to 24-26/D. Sufficient knowledge and understanding. Sufficient capability of
applying information to problems of interest for physiotherapists. Corresponding to 21-
2 3 / 3 0 .
E. Barely sufficient knowledge and understanding (with evident pitfalls).
Scarce capability of applying knowledge to problems of interest for physiotherapists.
Corresponding to 18-20/30.
Full marks with laude will be reserved to students exhibiting, together an
overal evaluation of 30/30, capability of making judgments, good
communication ability and autonomous learning skills.
The final vote will be decided jointly by the examiners, who will have the
possibility to decide a vote not higher or lower than two grades from
the best or the worst vote derived from the CFU-weighted mean of the two individual