PHYSIOPATHOLOGY AND CELLULAR PATHOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course will provide advanced information needed to understand causes and mechanisms underlying the main pathologic processes at cell, tissue and organism levels. Notions will be applied to relevant human pathologies. The comprehension of the pathophysiological aspects will help to link ethiology and pathogenesis to structural/functional alterations and, hence, to diagnostic approaches, which will be briefly described, and therapy. The availbility of bibliographic resources will be used to develop capability of making judgements, communication and learning skills.
Adequate bases of histology, anatomy, Biochemistry and Physiology are required.
Course contents summary
- Injury and adaptation of cells and tissues
- Tissue responses to injury: Inflammation, Hemostasis, Repair
- Cardiovascular pathophysiology - Pathophysiology of endocrine glands, metabolism and nutrition
1) Cell injury ed adaptation:
- oxidative stress, intracellular and extracellular accumulations. - ER stress
- Ischemic-hypoxic stress
- Cell death: necrosis, apoptosis, other modalities
- Adaptations: atrophy, hyperplasia, hypertrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia
2) Tissue responses to injury:
- Acute inflammation: the events, the cells, the mediators
- Chronic inflammation, granulomas, fibrosis
- Disorders of inflammation
- Systemic changes in inflammation - Clinical pathology of inflammation
- Phases of the hemostatic response
- Hemorrhagic disease and DIC
- Clinical Pathology of hemostasis
- Tissue repair and its disorders
3) Immune responses and their alterations: - Reminders of immune functions
- Clinical pathology of immune functions
4) Cardiovascular pathophysiology: - Hypertension
- Cardiac failure
- Pathophysiology of the diabetic syndrome
- Pathopgysiology of iron
- Pathophysiology of calcium and phosphorus
- Nutrition disorders
- Kumar, Abbas, Fausto, Aster- Robbins e Cotran – Le basi patologiche delle malattie, 8 ed. Elsevier-Masson
References on specific subjects will be provided during lessons.
Oral interactive lessons, supported by iconographic material that will be made availble to the students. Lessons will present the main conceptual frame of each subject, summoning questions or doubts from the audience and indicating bibliographic references for in-depth study of the subject.
Specific arguments will be treated also with the cooperation of specialists in seminars in Italian or English.
Assessment methods and criteria
No interim evaluation is programmed.
The final evaluation will consist in an oral examination.
Questions/student: 2 (from two different examiners, one question/examiner)
Questions will concern subjects listed in the detailed program.
Failure to answer to one question or to define correctly the subject, will prevent the successful completion of the exam.
After each question, the examiner will give an evalaution expressed in marks:
A. Very good knowledge and understanding. Very good capability of applying knowledge to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 30/30.
B. Good knowledge and understanding. Good capability to apply knowledge to biomedical problems. Corresponding to 27-29/30.
C. Average knowledge and understanding. Average capability of applying knowledge to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 24-26/30.
D. Sufficient knowledge and understanding. Sufficient capability of applying information to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 21-23/30.
E. Barely sufficient knowledge and understanding (with evident pitfalls). Scarce capability of applying knowledge to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 18-20/30.
Full marks with laude will be reserved to students exhibiting, together an overal evaluation of 30/30, capability of making judgments and good communication ability and autonomous learning skills.
The final vote will be decided jointly by the examiners, who will have the possibility to decide a vote not higher or lower than three grades from the best or the worst vote derived from the mean of the two individual votes.