Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course will provide advanced information needed to understand the mechanisms underlying main physiologic functions at cell, tissue and organismic levels in the human body. In particular, the different
organ systems of the human body will be studied in detail in order to master advanced information and knowledge for the introspection of basic mechanisms of basic functions at cellular, tissue and organ levels. The availbility of bibliographic resources will be used to develop capability of making judgements, communication and learning skills.
Basic knowledge of histology, anatomy, biochemistry and physics are required.
Course contents summary
Cardiovascular system. Normal and abnormal conduction in the heart.
References on specific subjects will be provided during lessons.
1) The cardiovascular system
Cardiac muscle: functional anatomy. Organization of the cardiovascular system. Elements of cardiac function. Cardiac electrophysiology and the electrocardiogram.Hemodynamics. How blood flows. Measure of blood pressure, flow and cardiac volumes. Properties of the vasculature. arteries and veins. The microcirculation. Regulation of the heart and vasculature. Integrated control of the cardiovascular system. Special circulations.
2) The respiratory system.
Structure and function of the respiratory system. Mechanical properties of the lung and chest wall: static and dynamic. Ventilation (v), perfusion (q), and v/q relationships. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport. Control of respiration. Nonrespiratory functions of the lung.
3) The renal system.
Elements of renal function. Solute and water transport along the nephron: tubular function. Control of body fluid osmolality and volume. Potassium, calcium, and phosphate homeostasis. Role of the kidneys in the regulation of acid-base balance.
4) Gastrointestinal physiology.
Functional anatomy and general principles of regulation in the gastrointestinal tract. The cephalic, oral, and esophageal phases of the integrated response to a meal. The gastric phase of the integrated response to a meal. The small intestinal phase of the integrated response to a meal. The colonic phase of the integrated response to a meal. Transport and metabolic functions of the liver.
Casella, Taglietti. Principi di Fisiologia (vol. 1 e 2). La gogliardica Pavese
D'Angelo, Peres. Fisiologia. Edi-Ermes
Silverthorn. Fisiologia umana. Un approccio integrato. Pearson
Koeppen, Stanton. Fisiologia di Berne e Levy. CEA
Ganong, Barman, Barret. Fisiologia medica di Ganong. Piccin Nuova Libraria
Boron, Boulpaep. Medical physiology. Elsevier Saunders
Specific bibliographic references will be suggested during the lessons.
Oral interactive lessons, supported by iconographic material that will be made availble to the students. Lessons will present the main conceptual frame of each subject, summoning questions or doubts from the audience and indicating bibliographic references for in-depth study of the different topics.
Assessment methods and criteria
No interim evaluation is programmed.
The final evaluation will consist in an oral examination.
Questions/student: 4, one for each of the topics in the program. Questions will concern subjects listed in the detailed program.
Failure to answer to one question, or verified uncapability to define correctly the subject, will prevent the successful completion of the exam.
After each question, the examiner will give an evalaution expressed as :
A. Very good knowledge and understanding. Very good capability of applying knowledge to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 30/30.
B. Good knowledge and understanding. Good capability to apply knowledge to biomedical problems. Corresponding to 27-29/30.
C. Average knowledge and understanding. Average capability of applying knowledge to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 24-26/3
D. Sufficient knowledge and understanding. Sufficient capability of applying information to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 21-23 / 30 .
E. Barely sufficient knowledge and understanding (with evident pitfalls). Scarce capability of applying knowledge to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 18-20/30.
Full marks with laude will be reserved to students exhibiting an overal evaluation of 30/30, capability of making judgments and good communication ability and autonomous learning skills.
The final vote will be decided as the average of evaluation marks obtained in the answers to the four individaul questions.