Learning outcomes of the course unit
Knowledge and understanding: the Chemistry course aims to provide a chemical key for understanding natural phenomena and to introduce the basic concepts for the study of matter in relation to its composition, structure, reactivity, properties. Particular emphasis is given to the study of the structure-property relationships. The theoretical treatment is supplemented with examples and exercises.
Applied knowledge and understanding: the course provides the tools to read the chemical properties of the systems and predict their behavior.
Ability to learn: in addition to the methodological principles, the course aims to provide the fundamentals of the chemical language necessary for the student to read and understand basic and advanced texts on the subject.
Ability to communicate: the student acquires the specific technical language required to communicate with specialists and necessary to properly express even complex concepts in an understandable form.
Making judgments: great care is given so that the student could draw connections not only between the different topics covered in the course but also with concepts acquired in other scientific disciplines in order to be able to form an independent judgment ability based on a knowledge extended to the various aspects of the problem in question.
No specific chemical knowledge required.
Course contents summary
The Chemistry course consists of a first part in which the fundamental concepts necessary for the study of matter in relation to its composition, structure, properties and reactivity are defined using as conceptual tools the modern atomic theory of matter and the periodic properties of the elements. The second part is devoted to the description of the principles determining the formation of strong (ionic and covalent) and weak (van der Waals) interactions in matter. The third part of the course is finally focused on the study of chemical transformations, with particular emphasis on the thermodynamic and kinetic aspect of the processes.
The foundations of the atomic theory of matter. Substances, elements, compounds. Atomic and molecular mass. Isotopes. Oxidation number. Nomenclature of inorganic compounds. Mole. Chemical reactions. Stoichiometry. Atomic structure of matter. Introduction to quantum mechanics. Bohr's atom and developments of the model. Atomic orbitals. Electronic configurations of elements. Periodic table and periodic properties of elements. Chemical bond. Ionic and covalent models of chemical bond. Lewis symbolism, structure formula. Valence bond theory. Hybrid orbitals. VSEPR theory and molecular geometry. Pauling electronegativity. Weak intermolecular interactions. Gaseous state. Introduction to the kinetic theory of gases. Properties and laws of ideal and real gases. Speed of gaseous molecules and temperature. Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. Solid state. Symmetry in crystals. Crystallographic classes and systems. Correlation between properties and structure in ionic, molecular and metallic crystals. Polymorphism, isomorphism. Liquid state. Properties of liquids. Vapour pressure and temperature. Properties and compositions of solutions. Ways to express composition. Raoult's law and deviations from the ideal behaviour. Colligative properties. Thermochemistry and chemical thermodynamics. The three principles of thermodynamics. Energetic in chemical systems. Enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy. Chemical equilibrium. Homogeneous systems. Mass action law. Equilibrium constant. Heterogeneous systems. Phase rule. Phase diagrams of one-component systems. Proton exchange equilibria. Nature of acids and bases. Relationships between structure and acid/base properties. Ionization of water. pH. pH indicators. Hydrolysis. Anphoter compounds. Buffer solutions. Solubility of salts, solubility product constant. Electron exchange equilibria. Galvanic cells, electrolytic cells, accumulators. Standard reduction potentials. Nerst law. Faraday laws. Application od the electrochemical series of elements. Chemical kinetics. Reaction speed. Reaction order. Reaction mechanisms. Molecular collision theory. Transition state. Photochemical reactions. Catalysts and inhibitors.
Kotz, Treichel - Chimica, SES
Malatesta, Cenini - Principi di chimica generale, C.E. Ambrosiana
Atkins, Jones - Chimica Generale, Zanichelli
Zanello, Mangani, Valensin - Le basi della chimica, C.E. Ambrosiana
Manotti-Lanfredi, Tiripicchio - Fondamenti di chimica, C.E. Ambrosiana
Lectures and exercises.
Assessment methods and criteria
The knowledge gained and the ability to understand and apply the topics covered in the course are verified by an oral examination designed to verify the acquired ability to describe chemical systems and describe their transformations with a correct technical-scientific language.