Food and Beverages 2
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Knowledge and understanding: the course aims to enable the student to
have a general knowledge and understanding of the main properties of
dairy products (composition, microbiology, texture, also in relation with
the main features of processes and shelf-life) compared to the
description made by different communication channels (laws, massmedia,
Applying knowledge and understanding:
The class aims to enable students to apply the knowledge learned in the
employment context identified in the areas covered by the employment
opportunities typical of the degree course
Making judgments: the course aims to enable the student to begin to
develop an autonomous capacity to draw conclusions thanks to the skills
learned to seek and gather relevant data, interpret them and use the
most appropriate to communicate scientifically sound information
Communication skills: the course aims to enable the student to
communicate his knowledge about dairy products to people expert
and/or not expert of the dairy field
Learning skills: The course aims to give students the learning skills
necessary to undertake further studies with a high degree of autonomy
Knowledge and understanding, also in English, of the food quality
vocabulary and of the GHP and HACCP principles.
Ability to evaluate and upgrade prerequisite programs and HACCP Plans
in small food business.
Knowledge of the fundamentals of food microbiology and chemistry is
useful for an efficient understanding of the course contents
Course contents summary
The class highlights the main characteristics (composition, chemistry,
structure) of a wide range of dairy products used as food and as an
ingredient in other foods, with attention to their links with key aspects of
their method of production, territorial origin, labeling, methods of
marketing and consumption, shelf life.
The class compares the available knowledge given by technical-scientific
literature with the communication proposed by other information
channels (laws, mass media, advertising, etc.) in order to discuss the
logic underlying the different types of communication.
The groups of dairy products covered by the class are:
1) Fluid products for direct consumption where milk is the exclusive or
(liquid milk, fermented milk)
2) Products derived from milk or milk fractions processing:
cheese, cream, mascarpone, butter, cottage cheese
3) Products based on milk or milk fractions characterized by the use as a
main ingredient in other foods:
condensed and powdered milk; infant formula
Preliminarily the food products quality requisites are reviewed:
compulsory and regulated (with law references), contractual and
Later, European food hygiene rules and guidelines for the effective GHP
prerequisites and HACCP System implementation are shown and
For some food products, the hazard analysis and the HACCP Plan drawing
up are exemplified.
The products discussed during the class are the following:
1) Raw milk for direct consumption
2) Liquid milk with reduced shelf life (pasteurized, microfiltrated)
3) Liquid milk with long shelf life (sterilized, UHT)
4) Functional liquid milk (hydrolyzed lactose, PUFA etc)
5) Condensed milk and dulce de leche
6) Powdered milk
7) Infant formula
8) Yogurt and fermented milk
9) Cheese: fundamentals
10) Fresh unripened cheeses
11) Soft cheeses with active rind
12) Blue cheeses
13) Cooked cheeses
14) Mountain cheeses
15) Mozzarella cheeses
16) Cream, butter and Mascarpone
Introduction and basic definitions.
Hygiene and commercial food quality requirements.
European Food Law.
GHP, HACCP System, identification and traceability.
Practical example of HACCP documentation.
Guideline for the access to information sources on hygiene requisites.
Slides provided by the teacher
To improve knowledge:
Mucchetti G., Neviani E.(2006) Microbiologia e tecnologia lattiero
casearia. Qualità e sicurezza. Tecniche Nuove Ed. Milano
Electronic training aids supplied by the teacher (also comprehending
deepening topics not illustrated during lessons), with web links for free
downloading cited documents.
Lectures with slides presentation.
When lectures on a specific group of dairy products are over, students
are required to discuss how they could present a product, considering
what they have learned.
Lectures are mostly based on European regulations and guidelines in
English, by underlining errors in the correspondent Italian official
translations. The applicative examples are presented in Italian.
Assessment methods and criteria
The Assessment is carried out in a single final examination scheduled as
the examination starts with exposure by the student of a multimedia
presentation (e.g. Power Point) consisting of not more than 8 slides
(beyond that of the title). The student will have 10 minutes for
presentation. The topic of the presentation is freely chosen by the
The examination is completed with the discussion of the content of the
presentation and the formulation of questions from the teacher about the
topics of the course.
The final examination score is awarded on the basis of the following
1) quality of the presentation, as an index of the student's ability to
choose material according to priority, given the imposed time limit and
slide number, and organize the knowledge thereof in order to
2) student's ability to answer issues and then apply his own knowledge.
For the argument chosen by the student, his knowledge and
understanding of the food quality and safety vocabulary is evaluated as
passing mark. Later, from the answers to specific questions, the student’s
ability to evaluate and upgrade prerequisite programs and HACCP Plans