HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Knowledge and understanding.
Students need learn methods for studying the morphological and functional organization of the human body and in particular of: the cell, the tissues, the organs, with an overview of embryology; the anatomy and the physiology of the human body, with special emphasis on the cardio-respiratory, urinary and nervous systems.;
Applying knowledge and understanding
Students must use the tools and methods for the study of the morphological and functional organization of the human body
Ability to reason about a protocol and methods for the study of morphological and functional organization of the human body.
Ability to understand and be understood in technical situations
Ability to summarize a technical procedure and to write a scientific progress report
Course contents summary
First lessons: organization of the human body, terminology and anatomical body plans. Concept of organ and system.
Following lessons: description and composition of the major tissues and organs. General principles of physiology.
Latest lessons: the anatomy and subsequently the physiology of the nervous system, cardiovascular system, of the respiratory and urinary tract .
Anatomy and Physiology of the Locomotor System:
Classification of the bones, joints and muscles.
Bones, joints and muscles of the axial system (skull, spine, thorax and pelvis) and of the limbs.
Anatomy and Physiology of the Cardiovascular System
Gross anatomy of the Heart and of the main arteries and veins.
The properties of the miocardium: autorithmicity, conductibility, excitability, contractility.
Elements of cardiac electrophysiology: ionic theories of the action potential.
The mechanical events of the cardiac cycle.
The cardiac output
The intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of the cardiac activity.
The vascular system .
The arterial pressure.
Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
Gross Anatomy of the organs of the GI tract, liver and pancreas.
Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System
Systematic anatomy of the upper and lower airways, lungs and pleurae.
The thorax and the respiratory muscles.
The pulmonary volumes.
The respiratory mechanics.
The alveolo-capillary exchanges of the gases. The gaseous exchanges in the tissues.
Carriage of the oxygen and the carbon dioxide in the blood.
Anatomy and Physiology Urinary System
Gross and microscopic anatomy of the Kidney, Ureters and urinary bladder, urethra.
Tubular secretion and absorption in the different segments.
Regulation of the hydro-salty balance sheet.
Anatomy of the Endocrine System
Anatomy of the hypophysis, Thyroid and Adrenal glands.
General organization of the reproductive system in the male and female.
Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System:
General anatomical organization of the Central and Peripheral Nervous System. Brain, cerebellum, spinal cord, cranial nerves, plexuses.
The action potential.
Synapses and receptors.
Somatic sensibility and receptors (the corpuscle of the Pacini).
Organization of the somatic systems.
Organization of the motor systems.
The spinal reflexes.
Organization of the motor and sensory cortical areas. Somatotopy.
ANATOMIA UMANA (Martini), Ed. EdiSES;
Di Prampero – Fisiologia dell’Uomo. Edi-Ermes.
Oral lesson, lectures. Practical lessons and direct experience on anatomical models.
Oral lesson, lectures. It will also handle the assimilation of the scientific literature concerning the methods, experimental protocols, animal models and procedures for the characterization of:1) the functional and physiological response of the cells; 2) structural and morphological analysis of tissues in various organs.
Assessment methods and criteria
The assessment of the achievement of the objectives of the course consists of an oral examination. Through questions about the contents of the course will be determined whether the student has achieved the goal of knowledge and understanding of the content.