Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims to enable the student to know and understand the essential elements of the reproduction of livestock, to transmit knowledge of the reproductive management of the cow, mare, sow and sheep, and the ways in which takes place on the farm. The course wants to bring the student to the acquisition of the technique of artificial insemination in farm animals and the ability to make a macroscopic and microscopic semen in different livestock species. The student must be able to assist a veterinarian in the performance and implementation of best practices diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive breeding with independent judgment.
Course contents summary
Reproductive physiology of male and female in livestock (Bovine, Equine, Porcine, Ovine)
Reproductive technologies in cattle
Porcine reproductive techniques
Reproductive techniques in sheep
Biotechnology applied in reproduction of livestock (notes on Embryo Transfer, IVF, IVP, ICSI)
European and Italian regulations on animal reproduction
Bovine A.I. technique in vitro and in vivo (practical)
Equine Stallion Semen Collection - techniques.
Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of semen (how to perform a Fertility test).
Techniques for the calculation of insemination doses.
A.I. in the mare
Equine embryos - evaluation
Equine Embryo Transfer, GIFT, ICSI.
European and Italian regulations on animal reproduction
Management of multiple pregnancies
Like attending a birth – operating protocol (Bovine, Equine)
Normal delivery and dystocia (Bovine, Equine)
Placenta evaluation (normal Vs anomalous)
Failure of passive transfer (foal and calf)
Major diseases of the newborn foal (PAS, Sepsis, SIRS, Neonatal Isoerythrolysis)
General rules for transporting foals for intensive care (how, when and where)
The orphan foal
Rhodococcus equi pneumonia; how to prevent and recognize it
Advice on health management of a breeding centre
Cervix palpation, evaluation by speculum (practical)
Perineum evaluation of the mare, assessment for A.I., A.I. simulation in vivo and in vitro (practical)
Physiology of Reproduction in Mammals (Overview)
Regulation of reproduction in females
Regulation of reproduction in males
Reproductive differences in Equine, Cattle, Sheep, Pigs (estrous cycle, seasonality, semen characteristics)
Semen Collection (bull, stallion, boar)
Macroscopic and microscopic semen characteristics (fertility tests).
Techniques for the calculation of the insemination doses.
Methods of storage and handling of insemination doses (chilled and frozen)
Artificial insemination (AI) in farm animals (species Equine, Bovine, Ovine and Swine)
FA programs in Equine, Bovine, Ovine and Porcine
(Induction and synchronization of oestrus and ovulation)
Features of the placentation and pregnancy in species Equine, Bovine, Ovine and Porcine
Management of twin pregnancy in the mare
Normal delivery and dystocia (bovine, equine)
Evaluation of the Placenta (normal vs. abnormal)
How to attend the newborn - operating protocol (bovine, equine)
Failure of passive immunity colostrum (foal and calf)
Major diseases of the foal, calf, newborn piglet
Advice on health management of a herd - Active and passive biosafety.
Practical sessions with the use of organs (urogenital organs) from the slaughter, and artificial insemination of cows and mares housed at the Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences.
Biotechnology applied in livestock
Embryo transfer in livestock
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
Injection of sperm into the cytoplasm (oocyte) (ICSI)
European law and Italian legislation on animal reproduction
P.L. Senger - Pathways to pregnancy and parturition - Second revised edition - wwww.currentconceptions.com ISBN 0-9657648-2-6 - 2003.
R.S. Youngquist - W. R. Threlfall - CURRENT THERAPY IN LARGE ANIMAL THERIOGENOLOGY, SECOND EDITION ISBN 10: 0-7216-9323-7 ISBN 13: 978-0-7216-9323-1 - 2007.
P.Hyttel, F.Sinowatz, M.Vejlsted, K.Betteridge, Essentials of Domestic Animal Embryology ISBN 978-0-7020-2899-1, 2010.
Ian Gordon, Reproductive Technologies in Farm Animals - ISBN 0 85199 862 3 - CABI publishing, 2004.
TERRY L. BLANCHARD - MANUAL OF EQUINE REPRODUCTION II ED. - EV Edizioni vet. (catalogo SCIVAC) - www.evsrl.it/distribuzione/
J. SAMPER - EQUINE BREEDING MANAGEMENT AND ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION - EV Edizioni vet. - www.evsrl.it/distribuzione/
D. MOREL - EQUINE REPRODUCTIVE PHISIOLOGY, BREEDING & STUD MANAGEMENT -3rd Edition - Oct. 2008 - www.cabi.org
B.W. PICKETT, E.L. SQUIRES et al. - PROCEDURES FOR COLLECTION
EVALUATION AND UTILIZATION OF STALLION SEMEN FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION - CSU Animal Reproduction
Laboratory Bullettin n. 03 - www.colostate.edu
E.L. SQUIRES et al. - COOLED AND FROZEN STALLIONSEMEN FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION - CSU A.R.B.L. Bullettin n.09 -www.colostate.edu
SALI GIOVANNI: Gestione Clinica della Riproduzione Bovina (2013) Ed. Point Veterinarie Italie
Bottarelli F. Fertilità e Ipofertilità Bovina (1989) Ed. TEP Veterinaria
MARUSI A.: Nozioni di ostetricia e ginecologia nella cavalla. Step Ed., Parma.
McENTEE K.: Reproductive Pathology of domestic mammals. Academic Press.
RICHTER J., GOETZE R.: Ostetricia Veterinaria. Ed. italiana a cura di O. Oliva, Grasso, Bologna. Patologia della riproduzione e F.A.
ARTHUR G.H.: Ostetricia e riproduzione degli animali domestici. Ed. italiana di M. Mastronardi e P. Minoia.
LAWRENCE T.L.J., FLOWER V.R.: Growth of farm animals. Cab Intern Ed., 1997. MARUSI A.,
MARUSI A.: Dal Bos primigenius alla Transgenic Cow. Multimedia Ed.
MARUSI A.: Note di riproduzione equina. A.P.A. Ed., Parma. PEREZ Y PEREZ: Riproduzione animale: inseminazione artificiale e trapianto embrionale. Piccin Ed. SALI G.: Manuale di teriogenologia bovina. Edagricole.
The course will take place through lectures, tutorials, seminars, visits to partner companies and local public slaughterhouse.
During the lectures will be to support specific and updated Power Point presentation of the topics covered, will be screened instructional videos into DVDs that will be discussed with the students.
Practical exercises will be carried out with small groups of students (max 5-6 students at a time) on reproductive organs from local slaughterhouses and in vivo animal directly on farms or in the facilities of the Department.
Assessment methods and criteria
Final written exam multiple choice.