Learning outcomes of the course unit
The student will be prepared to a correct and deep understanding of the fundamental mechanisms which govern the chemical transformation of matter in the main fields of interest for the Environmental and Land Management Engineering. In particular the attention will be focused on thermodinamic, chemical equilibria between phase and electrochemistry.
the student will be encouraged: A) to illustrate the chemical theory with a rational approach; B) to demonstrate that the interconnections between the various aspects of the theory are well known; C) to achieve a Language scientifically-oriented.
The student must have the basic knowlege of mathematic and physic necessary for the first year courses.
Course contents summary
Introduction. Elements and compounds. Mixtures and compounds. Determination of the atomic masses.Structure of matter. Fundamental particles of the atom. Atomic number. Mass number. Isotopes. Atomic mass. Mass spectrometry. Mole. The defect of mass.Stoicheiometry. Molar mass. Chemical equations and their balance. Calculations of the masses or reagents and products. Limiting reagent. Origin of the quantum theory. Electromagnetic radiations and atomic spectra. The hypothesis of Planck. The Hydrogen atom according Bohr. Electronic transitions in the hydrogen atom and frequencies of its spectrum. The wave-particle dualism of the electron. Heisenberg principle. Schrödinger equation. Quantum numbers. Orbitals and their limiting surfaces. The spin of the electron. Polyelectronic atoms. Aufbau method. Pauli’s principle and Hund’s rule. Electronic configurations. Periodic properties.Chemical bond. The ionic bond. The covalent bond according to the V.B. theory. The Lewis formulas. Octet rule. VSEPR theory. The resonance. The dipole moment and the % of ionic character. The V.B. method and M.O. theory. Electronegativity according to Mulliken and to Pauling. Hybrid orbitals sp, sp2, sp3. Benzene and resonance. The hydrogen bond. Intermolecular forces of van der Waals. The metal bond. Conductors and insulators.Chemical nomenclature and reactivity. Oxydation number. Balance of a redox reaction. Oxidant and reducing agents. Nomenclature of inorganic compounds.GasesIdeal gases. State equation. Partial pressure and partial volume. The Maxwell’ s distribution of the molecular velocities. The Graham’s law. Real gases. van der Waals’ s equation.Thermodynamics. Variables and state functions. Reversible and irreversible transformations. The First Law. Henthalpy. Entropy. The Second Law. Entropy and statistic. The Third Law. Thermochemistry: the Lavoisier-Laplace’s law and the Hess’s law. Standard hentalpies. Standard entropies. Bond energies and heat of a reaction. Helmoltz’s and Gibbs’s free energies. Exercises.The liquids. Introduction.Liquefaction of gases. Liquid-gas equilibrium. Vapor pressure. Boiling point. Solid-vapor equilibrium. Solid-liquid equilibrium. Phase diagrams of H2O e CO2.Solid state. The crystal lattice and the unit cell. Crystallographic classes. Crystal systems and Bravais lattices.Covalent crystals. Molecular crystals. Polimorphism. Solutions. Calculation of the concentrations of a solution. Ideal solutions. Vapor pressure of a solution. Raoult’s law. Colligative properties. The van’t Hoff’s coefficient. Chemical equilibrium. Equilibrium reactions. The equilibrium constants Kp and Kc. Relation between Kp e Kc. Homogeneus and heterogeneus equilibria. The Le Chatelier-Braun’s principle. Excercises.Phase equilibria. Gibbs’ s rule. Phase diagram of water and the rule of phases. State diagram of sulfur. Binary systems: liquid-gas for ideal and non-ideal solutions.Fractional distillation. Binary systems: solid-liquid: the eutectic. Binary systems: formation of solid solutions. Freezing mixtures.
Solubility equilibria. olubility product. Acid and bases according to Brönsted and Lowry and Lewis. Strengths of the acids and the bases. pKa e pKb. pH e pOH. Ionic product of water. Hydrolisis. pH indicators. Buffer solutions.Exercises.Electrochemistry. Galvanic cells. Daniell cell. Freee energy ad electric work. Single-Electrode Potential. Nernst equation. Corrosion processes. Combustion cells. Lead batteries. Determination of pH with potentiometric methods. Exercises.Electrolysis. Faraday laws. Electrolythic copper refinement. Active and passive protections against corrosion.Kinetics of reaction. Elemental reactions. The activated-complex theory. Dependence of the kinetics fom: a) Temperature, b) radiations c). Catalysis.
Organic Chemistry. Alkanes, alkenes, alkines. Cyclic hydrocarbons. Aromatic hydrocarbons. Polymers. Alchools. Ethers, Aldehydes. Ketons. Carboxylic acids. Esters. Amines. Aminoacids.
For the theory: “Lezioni di Chimica per Ingegneria”, Author, F. Ugozzoli, Libreria Medico Scientifica, Parma (firstname.lastname@example.org).
For the exercises: “Come risolvere i problemi di chimica”, Author: F. Ugozzoli, CEA – Casa Editrice Ambrosiana.
The lectures will be presented on the blackboard but can be integrated, when necessary, with the use of multimedia. The students will be encouraged to ask for question during the lectures.
Beyond the lectures, the teacher will be always ready to help the students with discussions and supplementary exercises.
Assessment methods and criteria
The examination consists of a written test in which the student should solve some numerical problems and to illustrate some theorethical concepts. A good result of the test is a prerequisite to be admitted to the oral test.