Learning outcomes of the course unit
The fundamental objective of the course is the acquisition of conceptual and scientific tools to explain the causes and mechanisms of human disease. In particular, the student will acquire knowledge of the main causes of disease (both extrinsic and intrinsic) and of the responses to biological damage. This will lead to understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of disease. The understanding of these topics, integrated with those of other basic teachings, will bring a wealth of knowledge to the student such as to enable him to better understand the clinical subjects of the following years
Course contents summary
At the end of the course the student will:
1. Know the main pathogenic factors (chemical, physical and biological agents) and their effects (biological damage) on living cells and tissues.
2. Know the response to the biological damage that are crucial in the process of healing/repair or pathology, with particular reference to mechanisms of inflammation, wound healing and chronic disease processes.
3. Know the pathogenesis of the most common genetic, congenital and acquired disorders, with particular reference to cancer, metabolic diseases and coagulopathies.
4. Acquire knowledge of scientific terms and language that are used in medicine.
The understanding of these topics, integrated with those of other basic teachings, will allow students to continue their studies with such a wealth of knowledge to enable him to better understand the clinical subjects of the following years.
Introductory concepts. Health and homeostasis. Deviations from homeostasis.
Etiology. The etiology of tissue injury at molecular level. Extrinsic causes of disease: chemical, physical and biological causes. Intrinsic causes of disease: single-gene disorders with classic and non classic inheritance; multifactorial diseases; cytogenetic disorders.
Pathophysiology of tissue injury and repair. The response to tissue injury. Acute and chronic inflammation. Events, mechanisms, types and evolution of the inflammatory process. Chemical mediators of inflammation. Types of inflammatory lesions. Systemic effects of inflammation. Hemostasis: phases and mechanisms. Hemorrhagic diseases due do defects in primary or secondary hemostasis. Thrombosis, embolism, infarction. Tissue repair and regeneration: Stem cells and tissue regeneration. Tissue repair and its alterations; Wound healing; Fibrosis. Atherosclerosis.
Cellular pathology. Reversibile and irreversibile cell injury. Adaptive mechanisms to cell injury: hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia. The ischemic-hypoxic stress: mechanisms, metabolic consequences, reperfusion injury. Cell death: necrosis and apoptosis.
Oncology. Definitions, nomenclature, epidemiology. Tumor etiology. Heredity and tumors. The cell cycle: control mechanisms and their alterations. Stem cells and cancer. Protooncogenes, oncogenes and oncoproteins. Oncosuppressor genes and their products. Altered DNA repair mechanisms and tumors. Defects of apoptosis and cancer. Intiation and promotion. The neoplastic cell. Tumor progression. Tumor angiogenesis. Invasivity. Metastasis.
Metabolic disorders: Disorders of lipid metabolism; Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism: metabolic alterations in diabetes.
Kumar, Abbas, Fausto, Aster. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Diseases 8° Edzione, Elsevier
During the lectures will be explained, with the help of slides prepared by the teacher, the pathogenic mechanisms of the diseases and the mechanisms of response to injury. The lectures will be open to wide-ranging discussion with the participation of the students. The slides will be available.
Assessment methods and criteria
The assessment of learning outcomes will be made through oral examination, during which the student will be asked questions on at least two different topics of the Program examination. The test will be considered positive only if the student will be able to answer both questions in a satisfactory manner, demonstrating in-depth knowledge and appropriate understanding. The final grade will take into account the evaluation of two different teachers who make up the Board of Examiners.