SPECIAL ODONTOSTOMATOLOGICAL PATHOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The aim of this Course is to provide the student, who is about to carry out training activities, an overview of the main diseases of the oral cavity with particular attention to the etiopathogenesis of each condition. In addition, the Course would allow the acquisition of the basic diagnostic and innovative techniques in order to acquire the basics of the proper diagnostic protocol.
Knowledge of anatomy, physiology and histopathology of the oral cavity.
Course contents summary
To provide knowledge of the physiological para- physiological lesions and pathological diseases of the soft tissues of the oral cavity, of the teeth, jaw bones and perioral tissues, both from the clinical and histopathological point of view. To provide understanding of the elementary lesions as the basis for the differential diagnosis between the different disesaes of the oral cavity. To provide basic elements of the main clinical and histopathological diagnostic procedures. Ability to perform a rational diagnostic path of oral diseases. To accustom students to the differential diagnosis of oral diseases with special reference to their correlation with systemic diseases and drug-related pathologies. To make early detection of potentially malignant lesions of the oral cavity and their prevention. To understand how to prescribe and evaluate radiological and/or laboratory examinations for diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic aims. To understand the importance of a correct fill of patient’s medical record with appropriate medical history and systemic diseases. To write a proper report of the observed disease. To properly expose the principal conditions and diseases of the oral cavity also to non-medical users. To learn how to interact with colleagues. To become able to use the correct medical evidence in the practice of oral medicine and pathology.
Semiotics of the Oral cranio-oro-maxillofacial district. Medical history, objective examination, diagnostic tools.
Anatomy-histology-embryology of the oral cavity, the jaw and the cranium.
Teeth embryology and histology. Physiology of dentition. Dental anomalies of number, site, position. Dental anomalies of structure and shape. Dental malformations.
Dental retention. Dysodontiasis of the 3rd molar. Complications in the dysodontiasis of the 3rd molar.
Abcesses and phlegmons in the oromaxillofacial district. Osteitis and osteomyelitis of the maxillaries. Diseases of the maxillary sinus.
Cysts of the oromaxillofacial district: Odontogenous cysts- Dysembryogenetic cysts- Mucosal cysts- Epidermal cysts- Pseudocysts - Cysts in relation to systemic syndromes and diseases.
Odontogenous tumours of the jaw: Classification- Epidemiology- Histopathology-Clinical manifestations
Non odontogenous tumours of the jaw: Classification-Epidemiology- Histopathology- Clinical manifestations
Anatomy, histology and physiology of the perioral skin, of the oral mucosa and of the periodontium. Generalised, localised and drug-induced increases in gingival volume.
Phases and diagnostic protocol of oral lesions. Clinical examination. Exfoliative cytology. Incisional and excisional biopsy. Elementary lesions of the oral mucosa. Diagnostic protocol for diseases of the oral mucosa. Conventional histological examination. Immunohistochemistry. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence
Infectious diseases: mycotic-bacterial-viral
Oral candidiasis: microbiological, epidemiological and clinical aspects of oral infections deriving from Candida spp.
Red and white lesions of the oral cavity
HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): correlated oral manifestations
Human HerpesVirus-8: Correlation with oral diseases
Oral Premalignant lesions of the oral cavity: Oral lichen planus- Erythroplakia-Leukoplakia- Initial carcinoma (in situ)
Benign tumours of the oral cavity: Classification-Epidemiology-Histopathology-Clinical manifestations
Malignant tumours of the oral cavity: Classification- Epidemiology- Histopathology-Clinical manifestations
Anatomy, histology, physiology, and semiotics of the tongue- Congenital and acquired tongue diseases- The taste function and its alterations (dysgeusia-ageusia)
Anatomy, histology, physiology and semiotics of the major and minor salivary glands. Inflammatory diseases of the salivary glands. Degenerative diseases of the salivary glands. Obstructive diseases of the salivary glands (sialolithiasis). Benign tumours of the salivary glands. Malignant tumours of the salivary glands.
Bibliographic research in dentistry and oral medicine: the principal database (PubMed, EMBASE). Narrative and systematic reviews of the medical literature.
Regezi JA, Sciubba J. Patologia orale Dalla diagnosi alla terapia. Terza edizione (1999) Edizione Italiana a cura di Antonio Carrassi. Antonio Delfino Editore.
Cawson R, Zinnie, Barrett, Wright. Oral Diseases III ed Mosby (Versione Inglese)
Cawson R, Zinnie, Barrett, Wright. Patologia orale Antonio Delfino editore (Versione Italiana)
Gandolfo S, Carrozzo M, Scully C. Patologia e medicina del cavo orale. UTET
Reichart PA, Philiphsen H. Patologia Orale. Masson
Ficarra G. Manuale di Medicina e Patologia orale. MacGraw-Hill
Lectures with scientific images and discussion of clinical cases in order to train students to gain critical skills on the topics and allow to gain an understanding of the physiological and paraphysiological conditions and pathological diseases of soft tissue, teeth and jaw bones in order to develop a correct diagnostic approach and management of different possible clinical questions that may arise during their working life.
Assessment methods and criteria
Oral exam in order to ensure the quality and level of knowledge and understanding of the course content and the ability to apply the acquired knowledge to professional practice. The trial will also evaluate the quality of student participation during lectures.