Learning outcomes of the course unit
TThe course of Biochemistry aims to enable the student to know and understand, in molecular terms, the main cellular metabolisms; understand and explain at the molecular level control systems of the cell and tissue functions, in particular the connective tissue of 'bone and tooth
At the end of the course the student must demonstrate that he has acquired the knowledge and understanding to enable them to connect the various biochemical processes at the cellular functionality.
As ultimate goal, the student understands the link between biochemical processes and life.
Basic Chemistry and introductory biochemistry
Course contents summary
In the first part of the course we will assess the level of knowledge of the concepts that constitute the prerequisites.
In the second part we will explore the knowledge on the structure and function of proteins, complex polysaccharides and complex lipids.
In Part III we will discuss: a) some of the main metabolic processes responsible for the production of energy needed to keep the cell alive.
b) Calcium metabolism.
- Insights introductory biochemistry
Complex carbohydrates: Glycoproteins and glycolipids
Complex lipids: Eicosanoids
Proteins: Composition and structure.
Protein of connective tissue, plasma and conjugated proteins of biomedical interest. Hemoglobin and oxygen transport.
Enzymes and enzyme kinetics. Coenzymes used in metabolic reactions.
Vitamins: biochemical action.
- Bioenergetics and biological oxidation. Krebs cycle. Oxidative phosphorylation.
- The glycolysis and the oxidation of pyruvate. Shunt of pentoses.
- Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis.
- Lipolysis, lipogenesis and hormonal regulation of lipid metabolism.
- Metabolism of glycogen.
- Gluconeogenesis; homeostasis of blood glucose.
- Cellular signaling. Surface receptors and intracellular receptors. Molecular mechanisms of receptor signaling through ion channel, G protein-coupled receptor, receptor tyrosine kinase, intracellular receptors that act as transcription factors.
-Biochemistry of the endocrine system: structure, function, biosynthesis and factors that regulate the release of: insulin, glucagon, epinephrine, thyroid hormones, cortisol.
-The role of hormones in the regulation of metabolism.
-Fat-soluble vitamins: structure, functions, and nutrition. Role of retinol in the perception of light stimuli, and the role of vitamin D in the regulation of serum calcium and in the formation of bone matrix, and the role of vitamin K in the process of hemostasis.
- Protein and biochemical pathways important in the process of blood clotting. proteins involved in the mechanism of inhibition of coagulation and in the dissolution of fibrin.
- Biochemistry bone and tooth structure. Structure and composition of bone, dentine and enamel. Processes of mineralization and bone resorption.
- Growth factors and hormones that act on bone cells.
- Metabolism of calcium and phosphate. Hormonal regulation of serum calcium.
D.L. Nelson, M.M. Cox
Introduzione alla biochimica di Lehninger
The course will be conducted on the basis of lectures during which after having exposed some general concepts will go on to describe them as part of the life processes of a cell.
The classes will be divided into three parts. A brief introduction to resume the arguments put forward in the previous lesson (10 '), a space for questions about the arguments (10') and 30 'to present new arguments.
Assessment methods and criteria
The assessment of the achievement of the objectives set by the course of Biochemistry include an oral exam that focuses on the teaching programs of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
The main objective of the audit is to ascertain whether the student has achieved the objective to acquire a sound knowledge and understanding of the whole of the contents of the two courses.
As required by law and by the academic regulations, it is not possible to carry out the verification in two parts and acquire credits of one or part of the programs.
Board of Examiners: Spisni Alberto, Elena Ferrari
Substitute: Pertinhez Thelma, Troglio Maria Giovanna