basic knowledge of physics, chemistry and biology.
1. The Nature of science and biology: methods and organizing concepts. Diversity and unity of Life on Earth, emergent properties, correlation between structure and function, the Scientific method. The unifying principle of biology: The Theory of Evolution.
2. The chemical context of life: water and the structure and function of macromolecules. Origins and evolution of life on Earth.
3. Cell Biology. Procaryotic ed Eucaryotic cells. Membrane structure and function. Cell metabolism and energy trasformations. The reproduction of cells and cell cycle (binary scission and mitosis).
4. Sexual Riproduction. Meiosis and sexual life cycles. Oogenesis, Spermatogenesis and Hormonal regulation of reproduction in mammals. Evolution, consequences and adaptive significance of sexual reproduction. Parental Investment and sexual selection.
5. Genetics. - Mendel e the gene idea. Extension of mendelian genetics: the complex relationship between genotype and phenotype (incomplete dominance, multiple alleles, pleiotropy, epistasis, poligenic inheritance, nature vs nurture). The chromosomal basis of inheritance: Morgan’s experiments and chromosome maps. The chromosomal basis of ses and X-linked disorders. Human genetics: alterations of chromosome number or structure; recessively and dominantly inherited disorders. Genetic disorders in oral medicine. Multifactorial diseases.
6. The molecular basis of inheritance: DNA structure and replication. From gene to protein: Transcription, Translation and the genetic code. Point mutations. Regulation of gene expression in Procaryotic and eucaryotic cells. The Genome project.
7. Evolution. The Darwinian theory. Evidence from many fields validates the evolution theory. The modern evolutionary synthesis. The Hardy-Weinberg Theorem. Microevolution and its caueses. The origin of species. Macroevolution and Phylogeny. The evolutionary perspective in medicine: “Darwininan Medicine”.
8. Vertebrate diversity and phylogeny: an overview. Mammalian characteristics and Evolution of Primates. Jaws and teeth evolution.
9. Human Evolution.. Early Anthropoids, Australopitecines and the genus Homo. Evolution of brain and language. Evolution of the stomatognathic apparatus and diet in Ominids.