# PHYSICS AND STATISTICS

## Learning outcomes of the course unit

Knowledge of the physical laws and phenomena at the basis of instrumental

measurements as well as of the concepts of dimensions, units and physical

magnitudes.

Introduce the student to the logic of statistical thinking and its application to practical

problems.

## Course contents summary

PHYSICS:

Fundamental Laws of Dynamics

Vectors and scalars. Units, dimensions. Velocity and acceleration. Newton's laws.

Newton's law of gravitation. Acceleration of gravity. Difference between mass and

weight. Work, power and energy. Types of energy: thermal, chemical, potential,

kinetic, nuclear. Energy conservation law. Friction. Static and dynamic friction.

Force and moment of a force. Centre of gravity, barycentre. Equilibrium state of a

rigid body. Levers and applications to the human body. Structure of solids. Elastic

properties of a body, Young's modulus. Elastic behaviour of blood vessels and

bones.

Fluids and Fluid Dynamics

Pressure, Stevino’s law. Pascal’s law. Archimede's principle. Torricelli barometer.

Flow rate. Characteristics of an ideal fluid. Bernoulli's theorem. Applications of

Bernoulli's theorem to blood circulation. Real fluids. Laminar flow. Turbulent flow.

Reynolds number. Blood pressure measurement. Surface tension and capillarity.

Waves, Optics, Electrostatics, Electricity, Magnetism and Radiations.

Vibrations: harmonic, damped, forced motions, and resonance. Characteristics of

waves, the wave equation, superposition and interference of waves, stationary

waves. Sound waves, the ear and hearing, interference of sound, beats.

Ultrasound. Doppler effect. The Doppler echo in diagnostics: an application of the

Doppler effect.

Light. Geometrical optics: refraction, reflection, Snell's law, total reflection. Lenses

and Dioptres. Creation of an image with a thin lens. The human eye, basic optical

instruments . Interference of light. Diffraction of light.

Electrostatics: electric charge. Coulomb's law. Electric field Electric potential Electric

current: definition of resistance. DC (direct current) circuits. Ohm's laws. Serial and

parallel resistors. Kirchhoff's law. Resistance, capacitance and inductance in an AC

(alternating current) circuit. Gauss' theorem. Flux of an electric field.

Electrocardiogram. Series and parallel capacitance. Dielectrics.

Magnetic Field. Electromagnetic field. Motion of charges in a magnetic field. Biot-

Savart law and Ampere's law. Force generated between current-carrying

conductors. Magnetic Induction: Faraday's law and Lenz's law.

The atom. Radioactivity, law of radioactive decay, half-life. Electromagnetic

spectrum. Photons as particles and waves. Production and applications of X rays.

Principles of Radioptrotection.

STATISTICS:

Introduction: medical statistics and related disciplines. Logic and statistical planning.

Overview of combinatorial analysis: permutations, arrangements, combinations.

Applications. Overview of probability calculations: simple and compound probability,

Bayes theorem. Odds. Odds ratios. Likelihood ratios. applications. Probability

distributions : binomial distribution, Poisson distribution, normal and standard

normal distribution. Tables and their use.

Summarising data. Units of measure. Measurements of position, order and

variation. Indices of central tendency, mean median, mode. Indices of variability,

variance, standard deviation, CV. Percentiles and their use.

General principles of statistical inference. Sampling distribution. Hypothesis and

hypothesis testing. Type 1 and type 2 error. Power of a test and operating curve.

Parametric test : Student t-test, Variance analysis with 1 and 2 classification criteria.

Non-parametric test: Wilcoxon test, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test,

Friedman test, mean test, Chi-square test, Fisher exact test.

Overview of linear regression and correlation.

## Course contents

Physics

Physical quantitites and their measurement: Measurement of a physical quantity - Dimensions and units – Errors - Mean value - Standard deviation and sampling approximation -Vector quantities.

- Fundamentals of dynamics: Principles of dynamics - Energy, work and power - Weight force - Theorem of the kinetic energy - Conservative force fields - Potential energy - Conservation of mechanical energy - Center of mass and its properties - Conservation of the quantity of motion - Moment of force - Overview of rigid body motion - Levers and the human body – Balance - Elastic phenomena, Hooke’s law and elasticity modules - Flexure and torsion - Elasticity of blood vessels and bones.

- Waves and acoustics: Wave motion, wave equation and characteristic parameters - Interference and beats - Stationary waves - Resonance - Diffraction and Huyghens principle - Sound and its characteristics - Intensity, sensation, Weber-Fechner law - Doppler effect - Ultrasound and its application in the biomedical field

- Hydrostatics and hydrodynamics: Pressure, Pascal and Archimedes - Atmospheric pressure and Torricelli’s barometer - Arterial pressure and its measurement - Surface tension and Laplace’s formula - Capillarity and Jurin’s law - Gaseous embolism - Pipe flow capacity - Ideal liquid and Bernouilli’s theorem -Implications for blood flow - Real liquids and viscosity - Laminar motion and Poiseuille’s theorem - Hydraulic resistance - Stokes’ equation and sedimentation speed - Turbulent regime and Reynolds number - Overview of cardiac work.

- Thermology and thermodynamics: Thermal dilation -Temperature and heat - Laws of gas and absolute temperature - Equation of state of ideal gases and approximation for real gases - Overview of the kinetic theory of gases - Specific heats –Change of state and latent heat - Heat propagation mechanisms -First and second principle of thermodynamics -Thermal machines and efficiency - Entropy and disorder.

- Optics: Reflection and refraction - Total reflection and optical fiber - Optical system, focus and dioptric power - Spherical diopter - Thin lenses, mirrors and image construction - Compound microscope - Resolution strength - The eye as a dioptric system - Principal ametropies of the eye and their correction using lenses - Wave theory of light - Laser light.

- Electricity, magnetism and electrical current: Electrical charges and Coulomb’s law - Electrical field - Work of the electrical field and electrostatic potential - Dipolar field - Overview of muscle fiber and electrocardiogram - Gauss’s theorem and its applications - Faraday cage - Electrical capacity and capacitor - Current intensity - Overview of the electronic structure of insulators, metallic conductors and semi-conductors - Ohm’s law - Series and parallel resistors – Electromotive force - Thermal effect of current - Electrical conduction in liquids - Passing of current in the human body -Thermoionic and photoelectric effects - Magnetic field and its action on current and magnets - Biot-Savart law - Ampere’s theorem of circulation - Solenoid - Electromagnetic induction - Self-induction – Alternating voltage and current - Impedance -Electromagnetic waves.

- Radiation: Structure of the atom and nucleus - Quantum numbers, electronic orbitals and transitions - Unstable isotopes and alpha, beta, gamma radiation - Law of radioactive decay and half-life - Radiation detection - Biomedical applications of radioisotopes - X-rays (production, properties and absorption mechanisms in the matter) - Radiological image - Overview of computerised axial tomography (CAT) and radiofrequency (NMR) imaging techniques- Overview of radiation safety.

Statistics

Introduction: medical statistics and related disciplines. Logic and statistical planning. Overview of combinatorial analysis: permutations, arrangements, combinations. Applications. Overview of probability calculations: simple and compound probability, Bayes theorem.

Odds. Odds ratios. Likelihood ratios.

## Recommended readings

FISICA:

Giambattista, McCarthy Richardson, Richardson: Fisica Generale,Ed. McGraw-Hill (Milano).

Bersani, Bettati, Biagi, Capozzi, Feroci, Lepore, Mita, Ortalli, Roberti, Viglino, Vitturi:

Fisica biomedica, Ed. Piccin Nuova Libraria (Padova).

Scannicchio: Fisica Biomedica, Ed. EdiSES (Napoli).

STATISTICA:

1) Appunti delle lezioni

2) Stanton A. Glantz : Statistica per discipline Bio-mediche - ed. McGraw-Hill

3) Sidney Siegel, N. John Castellan Jr. : - Statistica non parametrica - ed. McGraw-Hill

4) Risorse e link da Internet

## Teaching methods

classroom lectures

## Assessment methods and criteria

written examination