Learning outcomes of the course unit
Taking into account the previously acquired knowledge of anatomy, biology, biochemistry, physiology, general and general pathology, at the end of the course the student must demonstrate understanding about:
• the general principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics
• the route of administration of drugs and the properties of the different pharmaceutical forms
• the concept of bioavailability and bioequivalence
• the correct procedures and timing of drug administration
• the causes, signs and symptoms of major adverse events of drugs,
• the consequences and treatment of drug-drug interactions and interaction of medicaments with substances of herbal and alimentary origin.
• the instructions for use of the different classes of drugs most commonly used in diseases of interest of the study program.
Even in cooperation with other professionals, the student will then be able to contribute to the success of the therapy prescribed, to identify the problems related to drug therapy and to prepare an appropriate care plan.
The module is inserted in the teaching of Clinical Pathology Perioperative Medicine.
It aims to raise awareness and understanding of the student the meaning of laboratory tests for the purpose of major diseases. In particular, being inserted in the Teaching of Perioperative Medicine, aims to make early detection of diseases that can emerge from their assessment and that may interfere with the performance and the result of the intervention.
The student at the end of the course, will be able to use the acquired knowledge in order to identify the diseases and problems of the patient in general and in particular of the surgical patient.
It must also be able, in the light of the objective problems of the patient, to draw up a care plan appropriate to its specific condition and to emerging issues.
fundamentals of biochemistry and general pathology
Course contents summary
The teaching course of Applied Pharmacology is part of Integrated Course of Perioperative Medicine. The teaching of Applied pharmacology aims to educate the student to the knowledge and understanding of the mechanisms of drug action and of the basic principles that govern the movement of drugs into the body. The student will use the gained knowledge to evaluate the therapeutic and toxic activity of different classes of drugs of either natural or synthetic origin, as well as of biotechnological and innovative drugs used for targeted therapy.
The first series of lectures provides basic knowledge about the type and the method of application of laboratory tests and their purpose.
They are then described methods of handling, storage, transportation and shipment of biological samples, methods of assessment of their suitability and methods of preservation. They also examined the possible factors interfering with the variability of the result.
In the second series of lessons we get to the application of laboratory tests and their relationship to specific diseases.
Provides the necessary elements in order to interpret the meaning of changes in the main laboratory.
Contents of the Course of Applied Pharmacology
• General information on drugs. Nomenclature, pharmaceutical forms, discovery and development of new drugs, drug prescription. Pharmacosurveillance.
• General principles of pharmacokinetics. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of drugs. Accumulation of drugs into the body.
• Routes of administration of drugs
• Bioavailability and Bioequivalence.
• Dosage of drugs and Therapeutic Regimens
• Principles of Pharmacodynamics: mechanism of drug action and molecular targets.
• Factors that modify the response to drugs
• Drug toxicity: intolerance and allergy. Idiosyncratic responses and principles of pharmacogenetics.
• Drug-drug interactions of clinical relevance.
• Drugs acting on the central nervous system. Benzodiazepines, antidepressants, adrenergic stimulants.
• Drugs for control of pain. Opioid analgesics. Local anesthetics. NSAIDs and acetaminophen.
• Competitive and depolarizing neuromuscular blockers. Botulinum toxin and direct antispasmodics.
• Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and immunosuppressants: focus on corticosteroids.
• Gastrointestinal drugs: antacids, histamine H2-receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors, antiemetics, prokinetics, anti-diarrhoics, laxatives.
• Cardiovascular drugs, antihypertensives, diuretics, antiarrhythmics, digitalis and other positive inotropes; coronaroactive drugs, drugs affecting hemostasis.
• Principles of chemotherapy and general information about major classes of antibacterial, antiviral and anticancer drugs
Techniques for sampling and storage of blood and biological materials.
Composition of the blood.
Main routine tests and their usefulness: complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, liver and kidney function, electrolytes, lipid profile, coagulation, urinalysis.
Markers of myocardial damage.
Monitoring of the diabetic patien
Compendio di Farmacologia generale e speciale. Amico-Roxas et al., UTET, 2012
Farmacologia generale e speciale per le Lauree sanitarie. Cella et al., PICCIN, 2010
Basic pharmacology for nurses. Clayton and Stock, Mosby 2012
L.Triolo: Medicine for Health Care Workers - Ed.Piccin - last edition
The teaching will be carried out not only lectures, but also with interactive teaching and presentation of reports and case studies that will give students the chance to meet with real cases, in order to learn to be inferred from laboratory data and underlying diseases issues related to them.
Assessment methods and criteria
The achievement of the objectives of the course will be performed by an oral exam. Through general and specific questions relative to the program of the course, the level of knowledge relative to the characteristics of therapeutic drug and their correct use in the clinical setting will be determined. Moreover, the ability of the student to contribute with autonomy of judgment and professional approach to an appropriate care plan will be also assessed.
The learning and the degree of preparation is checked by written examination with multiple choice quizzes on the arguments put forward and discussed during the lessons.
The student must demonstrate that they have acquired adequate knowledge and skills to recognize the alterations of laboratory tests are important for the proper care of the patient, in particular of the surgical patient.
The examination shall be deemed passed if the student will be provided at least 80% correct answers.
During the lecture series will run two tests in progress, without attribution to vote, in order to reveal any need to study.
The final grade will be formulated based on the overall judgment of Teachers Teaching which owns the module in question.
Slides will be made available at the end of the course.