LABORATORY ANALYSIS APPLIED TO SPORTS
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Objectives of the course: This course aims to provide the students with basic knowledge about general characters of several pathologies frequently occurring in the sport world, particularly infections, inflammatory, blood diseases. Furthermore, it aims to provide basic concepts on the nomenclature, aetiology, pathogenesis and morphological bases of selected diseases relevant for professionals of sport sciences. Main topics will be discussed in trauma pathology of the brain and spinal cord, sudden cardiac death and diseases of the skeletal muscle and peripheral nerve.
Finally, laboratory techniques applied to the diagnosis of these pathologies and to the biochemical analysis of biological samples will be presented and discussed.
There are no obligatory prerequisites but, preferably, the student has to own a basic knowledge in Biology, Anatomy, Chemistry, Biochemistry, Physiology and general Microbiology.
Course contents summary
Laboratory medicine with regard to sport doping prevention. Laboratory tests: definition, typology, request modality. Biological sample: properties and characteristics. Pre-analytical and analytical variabilities affecting the laboratory data. Strategy about laboratory investigation of prohibited substances or methods: direct detection or recognition of biochemical alteration induced on the metabolisms. Basic biochemical analysis profiles. Markers of organ function or damage mainly with respect to skeletal muscle, liver, kidney and heart.Current waived test. Point of care testing (POCT): use and application. Criteria for test waiving. Quality control in POCT. Implementation and monitoring of POCT. Specimen and its treatment in POCT. Analytical basic principles of prohibited substances belonging to the following classes: stimulants, narcotics, diuretics, peptide hormones, anti-estrogens, masking tools. Analytical basic principles to investigate the following prohibited methods: haematic doping, chemical or physical or pharmacological manipulation, genetic doping.
TRAUMATIC INJURY OF THE BRAIN AND THE SPINAL CORD
Basic concepts in brian circulation
Brain concussion and contusion
Diffuse axonal injury
Brain hemorrhage (epidural, subdural, subarachnoidal e parenchymal)
Closed spinal trauma
SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH: EPIDEMIOLOGY, ETIOLOGY AND PREVENTION
PATHOLOGY OF SKELETAL MUSCLE
Basic concepts on the neuro-mucolar unit
The morphological approach to the study of skeletal muscle and the muscle biopsy
Myopathies and muscolar dystrophies
Infectious and non-infectious myositis
PATHOLOGY OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVE
The morphological approach to the study of peripheral nerve and the nerve biopsy
Neuronal diseases and assonopathies
Traumatic injury of the peripheral nerve
Physiopathology of blood and hemostasis. Blood. Hematopoiesis. Anemias
General features of inflammation. Vascular changes. Leukocyte extravasation and phagocytosis. Chemical mediators of inflammation. Systemic effects of inflammation: fever. Outcomes of acute inflammation.
Tissue regeneration and repair. Cutaneous wound healing.
Classification. Benign and malignant tumors. Tumor etiology. Invasivity and metastasis. Pathogenesis of neoplastic diseases. Life style and tumor.
MICROBIOLOGY AND APPLIED LABORATORY MEDICINE
Main biological, morphological and structural characteristics of viruses (notes)
Viral infection stages (notes)
Parenteral way-transmitted infections (hepatitis B, C and Delta virus; HIV); faecal-oral infections (hepatitis A and E virus); herpetic virus infections (Herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus, Varicella-zoster ); respiratory infections (influenza virus), human papillomavirus infections.
General characters of bacteria (notes)
Resident bacterial population and bacterial pathogenicity mechanisms
Antibacterial drugs (antibiotics and chemoterapics)
Examples of bacterial pathogens in humans (Staphylococci - Streptococci - Neisseria meningitidis - Mycobacteria – Salmonella sp. - Clostridia)
General characteristics of fungi (notes)
The fungal cell, the fungal colony; yeasts and filamentous fungi (notes)
Anti- fungal antibiotics
Classification of mycoses; common human mycoses
General characteristics of protozoa
Main blood and tissues, intestinal, urogenital parasite protozoa (Plasmodium sp., Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania, free living amoebae, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia, Cryptosporidium sp., Trichomonas vaginalis
5. TRANSMISSION ROUTES OF MICROBES AND VIRUSES
6. SPECIFIC PREVENTIVE MEASURES AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF VIRAL AND MICROBIAL INFECTIONS
Active and passive immunoprophylaxis
S.D. Ferrara: Doping Antidoping – Piccin.
L.Spandrio: Biochimica Clinica. Ed. Sorbona, Milano
Robbins e Coran, Le Basi Patologiche delle Malattie, Elsevier, 8° Ed. (only selected parts)
Rubin, Patologia, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano 2006 (only selected parts)
J.A.M Maier & M.Mariotti “Elementi di Patologia generale e Fisiopatologia”, McGraw-Hill Companies
T.D. Spector & J.S. Axford " Introduzione alla Patologia Generale", II ed., Ambrosiana Editor
G.M. Pontieri "Patologia Generale e Fisiopatologia generale, per i corsi di laurea in Professioni Sanitarie" II ed., Piccin
MICROBIOLOGY AND APPLIED LABORATORY MEDICINE
M. Bendinelli, C. Chezzi, G. Dettori, N. Manca, G. Morace, L. Polonelli, M.A. Tufano “Microbiologia Medica: gli agenti infettivi dell’uomo – biologia, azione patogena, laboratorio”. Virology; Bacteriology; Parasitology; Micology. Monduzzi Editore
Assessment methods and criteria