Learning outcomes of the course unit
Once completed the course and acquired the relative UFCs, the student will have basic information about bacteria, mycets, parasites, and virus of medical interest, on their interaction with human hosts, on their pathogenetic role, on preventive measures, on resistance to antimicrobial agents, on nosocomial infections. The student will also understand, at basic level, responses to tissue damage (inflammation, hemostasis, tissue repair), genetic diseases, biological features of tumors, fundamentals of immunity and immunopathology, with special reference to transfusional medicine. These elements will be integrated with dedicated nursing lessons and practical activities, and supported by proper terminological training. As a result, the student will be able to identify, for each person, the problems related to her/his basic life activities, as well as to select and describe the most adequate problem-oriented nursing operations taking into a proper account the distinct autonomy levels and the psycho-physical-social features of each person.
Basic elements of anatomy, biochemistry, physiology.
Course contents summary
1.Inflammation: signs and events of acute and chronic inflammation. The exudate. Types of exudate. Phagocytosis. Chronic granulomatous inflammation. Ulcers and abscesses. Chemical mediators of inflammation. Systemic effects and fever. Tissue repair. 2. Blood and hemostasis. Blood composition. Anemia. Leukocytosis and leukopenia. The phases of hemostasis. Hemorragic diseases. Thrombosis. Embolia. Infarction. 3. Genetic pathology. Mutations. Monogenic diseases. Multifactorial diseases. Chromosomic disorders. 4. Tumor pathology. Classification and nomenclature. Malignant and benign tumors. Causes of cancer and basic molecular oncology. Invasivity and metastasis. Tumor-host interaction. Grading and staging. 5. Immunology. Innate and specific immunity. Antigens and antibodies. Lymphocyte receptors. MHC and antigen processing. The functional anatomy of the immune system. Effector functions of lymphocytes. Primary and secondary responses. Vaccines. The immune system and infections. 6.Immunopathology. Hypersensitivity reactions. Primary and secondary immunodeficiencies. HIV infection. Autoimmunity. 7. Concepts of immunohematology. Blood groups. The AB0 and Rh systems. transfusional practices and transfusion complications.
1.Bacteriology. The general characters of the prokaryotic cell. Morphology and structure of the prokaryotic cell. Notes on bacterial metabolism and replication. Microbial pathogenicity. Host-microbe interactions. Normal flora of humans. Microbial pathogenicity and potential virulence factors. Antimicrobial agents. Methods for antibacterial susceptibility testing (notes)
Important pathogenic bacteria: - Staphylococci - Streptococci - Neisseriae - Corynebacteria - Mycobacteria - Clostridia - Gram-negative bacteria. 2. Mycology. General characters of fungi
The fungal cell, the fungal colony. Yeasts and moulds. Classification of mycoses. Common human mycoses. Antifungal agents. 3. Parasitology. Protozoa: Lyfe cicles - notes. Intestinal parasites. Tissues and blood parasites. Uro-genital tract parasites. Helminths: Lyfe cicles - notes. 4. Virology. Morphological and structural characteristics of viruses. Classification of viruses (notes). Viral replicative cycle. Virus cultivation. Common human viral diseases. 5. Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases. Detection and identification of the etiologic agent. Antibody detection.
1.Respiration and circulation. Identification of the problem and of the nursing objective. Choice of nursing activities (determination of HR, RR, AP, ECG; oxygen therapy, positional therapy, clapping, aerosol). 2. Temperature. Identification of the problem and of the nursing objective. Choice of nursing activities (determination of the temperature, warm and cold applications, the hypertermic/hypotermic patient).
1. Mobilization. Identification of the problem and of the nursing objective. Choice of nursing activities (preventive measures to avoid mobilization damage, assisted deambulation, obliged positions, evaluation of pressure lesions, traditional and advanced medications). 2. Nutrition. Identification of the problem and of the nursing objective. Choice of nursing activities (enteral and parenteral nutrition, ngt application, water balance). 3. Defecation and minction. Identification of the problem and of the nursing objective. Choice of nursing activities (determination of diuresis, urine samples, bladder catheterism, enteroclisma, the stomized patient). 4. Hygiene. Identification of the problem and of the nursing objective. Choice of nursing activities (personal care, dressing, environmental hygiene). 5. The pain. Identification of the problem and of the nursing objective. Choice of nursing activities (how to measure pain, anthalgic measures, nursing competencies and medical interventions)
Maier e Mariotti.
Elementi di Patologia Generale e Fisiopatologia.
M. Bendinelli, C. Chezzi, G. Dettori, N. Manca, G. Morace, L. Polonelli, M.A. Tufano
Microbiologia medica: Batteriologia, Micologia, Virologia. Gli agenti infettivi dell'uomo: biologia, azione patogena, laboratorio.
Parassitologia Generale ed Umana
Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
Craven e Hirnle
Principi fondamentali dell’assistenza infermieristica-funzioni del corpo umano e assistenza infermieristica- 1° e 2° volume
Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
Infermieristica medico–chirurgica-1° volume
Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
Additonal material will be provided during lessons.
Oral interactive lessons, supported by iconographic material.
Assessment methods and criteria