Learning outcomes of the course unit
Knowledge of principles of general pharmacology. Knowledge of drugs affecting the function of major organ systems in the body. Capability of applying knowledge to conditions of interest for the nurses in general care.
Course contents summary
General pharmacology. Drug nomenclature and prescription. Pharmaceutical formulations. Development of new drugs. Pharmacoepidemiology.
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Factors affecting therapeutic outcome. Drug toxicity. Pharmacogenetics. Allergic and idiosyncratic reactions. Drug interactions.
Special pharmacology. Opioid and non-opioid analgesics. Local anaesthetics. Neuropharmacology. Drugs acting on neuromuscular junction: competitive and depolarizing agents. Corticosteroids and non streroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Drugs affecting cardiovascular system. Drugs affecting gastrointestinal tract. General principles of chemotherapy.
General pharmacology. What is pharmacology. Drugs. Basic pharmacodynamics: sites and mechanisms of action, agonists and antagonists, partial agonists. Basic pharmacokinetics: how drugs reach their site of action, routes of administration, drug adsorption. Drug-protein binding and drug biodistribution. Drug biotransformation. Drug excretion. Pharmacokinetic parameters: bioavailability, apparent distribution volume, plasma drug half-life, clearance. Conditions modifying drug effects: drug interactions, the importance of patient conditions. Tolerance and resistance. Drug toxicity: collateral and unwanted events.
- Antiinflammatory drugs. Non steroidal, NSAIDs, and steroidal (glucocorticoids) antiinflammatory drugs.
- Neuropharmacology. Neuromuscular drugs: depolarizing and competitive blocking agents, central (GABAergic) and preripheral myorelaxant agents. Anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs. Analgesic drugs: opiates and non-opiate analgesics; local anesthetics.
-Drugs affecting the heart and the vascular system: Cardiac glycosides, antidysrhythmic drugs, antihypertensive drugs, diuretics, Ca2+-antagonists, directly- and indirectly- acting vasodilators drugs, angiotensine converting enzyme inhibitors. Anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs.
-Drugs affacting the gastrointestinal system: Drugs used to inhibit (H2-antagonists, proton-pomp inhibitors) or neutralise (antacids) acid secretion. Antiulcer drugs. Antispasmodic agents. Prokinetic agents. Antiemetic drugs. Purgatives. Antidiarrhoeal agents.
-Basic principles of chemiotherapy: the molecular basis of chemiotherapy; resistence to antibacterial drugs.
Compendio di Farmacologia generale e speciale. Amico-Roxas et al. UTET, 2005
Farmacologia generale e speciale. Per le Lauree sanitarie. Cella et al. PICCIN, 2010
Fondamenti di Farmacologia per infermieri. Clayton, Stock, 2007
Interactive oral lesson
Assessment methods and criteria
The final evaluation consists in a written examination. An open question will be addressed to the candidate. Questions will concern subjects listed in the detailed program.