# APPLIED PHYSICS

## Learning outcomes of the course unit

Introduce the student to the study and application of the scientific method, the basic research tool in any field of science. The course will also provide the conceptual basis for understanding a number of major technologies that with increasing frequency are used by doctors and technologists, such as ultrasound equipment, laser systems, radiology equipment, TC, NMR.

## Course contents summary

Physical quantities and their measurement. Units. Dimensional analysis. Errors. Mean value. Standard deviation and sampling approximation. Vector algebra.

Fundamentals of dynamics: Principles of dynamics. Energy, work and power. Weight force. Kinetic energy. Conservative force fields. Potential energy. Conservation of mechanical energy. Center of mass and its properties. Conservation of momentum. Overview of problems of impact. Torque and angular momentum. Overview of rigid body motion. Levers and the human body. Conservation of angular momentum. Elastic phenomena, Hooke’s law and elasticity modules. Elasticity of blood vessels and bone.

Hydrostatics and hydrodynamics: Hydrostatic pressure. Pascal's principle. Atmospheric pressure and Torricelli’s barometer. Surface tension and Laplace’s equation. Capillarity and Jurin’s law. Gaseous embolism. Pipeflow capacity. Ideal liquid and Bernouilli’s theorem. Implications for blood flow. Real liquids and viscosity. Laminar motion and Poiseuille’s theorem. Hydraulic resistance. Implications for hypertensive individuals or those under stress. Stokes’ equation and sedimentation. Turbulent flow and Reynolds number. Non-Newtonian fluids. Overview of cardiac work.

Thermology and thermodynamics: Temperature and heat. Laws of gases and absolute temperature. Equation of the status of perfect gases and approximation for real gases. Overview of the kinetic theory of gases. Specific heat. Phase transitions and latent heat. Heat propagation mechanisms. First and second principle of thermodynamics. Thermal engines and output. Entropy and disorder.

Waves and acoustics: Wave processes, wave equation and characteristic parameters. Interference and beats. Stationary waves. Resonance. Diffraction and Huyghens principle. Sound and its special characteristics. Doppler effect. Ultrasound and its application in the biomedical field.

Electricity, magnetism and electrical current: Electric charges and Coulomb’s law. Electric field. Electrostatic potential. Dipolar field. Overview of muscle fibre and electrocardiagram. Gauss’s law and its applications. Faraday's cage. Capacitors. Current intensity. Overview of the electronic structure of insulators, metallic conductors and semi-conductors. Ohm’s laws. Series and parallel resistors. Electric drive power. Thermal effect of current. Electrical conduction in liquids. Thermoionic and photoelectric effect. Magnetic field and its action on current and magnets. Biot-Savart Law. Ampere’s theorem of circulation. Solenoid. Electromagnetic induction. Self-induction. Voltage and alternating current. Impedance. Electromagnetic waves.

Radiation: Structure of the atom and nucleus. Unstable isotopes and alpha, beta, gamma radiation. Law of radioactive decay and half-life. Radiation detection. Biomedical applications of radioisotopes. X-rays (production, properties and mechanisms of absorption into matter) Overview of TC, NMR, PET. Overview of radiation safety.

## Course contents

Physical quantities and their measurement. Units. Dimensional analysis. Errors. Mean value. Standard deviation and sampling approximation. Vector algebra.

Fundamentals of dynamics: Principles of dynamics. Energy, work and power. Weight force. Kinetic energy. Conservative force fields. Potential energy. Conservation of mechanical energy. Center of mass and its properties. Conservation of momentum. Overview of problems of impact. Torque and angular momentum. Overview of rigid body motion. Levers and the human body. Conservation of angular momentum. Elastic phenomena, Hooke’s law and elasticity modules. Elasticity of blood vessels and bone.

Hydrostatics and hydrodynamics: Hydrostatic pressure. Pascal's principle. Atmospheric pressure and Torricelli’s barometer. Surface tension and Laplace’s equation. Capillarity and Jurin’s law. Gaseous embolism. Pipeflow capacity. Ideal liquid and Bernouilli’s theorem. Implications for blood flow. Real liquids and viscosity. Laminar motion and Poiseuille’s theorem. Hydraulic resistance. Implications for hypertensive individuals or those under stress. Stokes’ equation and sedimentation. Turbulent flow and Reynolds number. Non-Newtonian fluids. Overview of cardiac work.

Thermology and thermodynamics: Temperature and heat. Laws of gases and absolute temperature. Equation of the status of perfect gases and approximation for real gases. Overview of the kinetic theory of gases. Specific heat. Phase transitions and latent heat. Heat propagation mechanisms. First and second principle of thermodynamics. Thermal engines and output. Entropy and disorder.

Waves and acoustics: Wave processes, wave equation and characteristic parameters. Interference and beats. Stationary waves. Resonance. Diffraction and Huyghens principle. Sound and its special characteristics. Doppler effect. Ultrasound and its application in the biomedical field.

Electricity, magnetism and electrical current: Electric charges and Coulomb’s law. Electric field. Electrostatic potential. Dipolar field. Overview of muscle fibre and electrocardiagram. Gauss’s law and its applications. Faraday's cage. Capacitors. Current intensity. Overview of the electronic structure of insulators, metallic conductors and semi-conductors. Ohm’s laws. Series and parallel resistors. Electric drive power. Thermal effect of current. Electrical conduction in liquids. Thermoionic and photoelectric effect. Magnetic field and its action on current and magnets. Biot-Savart Law. Ampere’s theorem of circulation. Solenoid. Electromagnetic induction. Self-induction. Voltage and alternating current. Impedance. Electromagnetic waves.

Radiation: Structure of the atom and nucleus. Unstable isotopes and alpha, beta, gamma radiation. Law of radioactive decay and half-life. Radiation detection. Biomedical applications of radioisotopes. X-rays (production, properties and mechanisms of absorption into matter) Overview of TC, NMR, PET. Overview of radiation safety.

## Recommended readings

D.C.Giancoli - Fisica - Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

A. Giambattista - B. McCarthy Richardson- R. Richardson. Fisica generale - Principi e applicazioni - McGraw Hill

## Teaching methods

classroom lectures

## Assessment methods and criteria

written examination