APPLIED PHYSISCS II
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The most specific contents of the course are essentially intended to cover the basic aspects of the Physics regarding the electric, magnetic, and radiative properties, with a double purpose: 1) to give the necessary elements propaedeutic to other disciplines of this degree which have a direct physical foundation or should make frequent implicit use of Physics concepts (Chemistry, Biology, Biochemistry, Physiology, Instrumentation, Radiological instruments, etc.); 2) to lead the student to reach a deeper confidence about phenomenologies of daily use, but not always clear, as: light and its properties, also with reference to the most usual optical devices, and eye physical defects; electric and magnetic forces; laws governing potentials and currents; the basic electrical and magnetical ingredients; the substantial differences between continuous and alternate situations; features of the electromagnetic field and its propagation; atomic and nuclear structures with particular regard to X, alpha, beta and gamma radiative emissions; perturbation induced by radiation in the matter; revelation and control methods.
Course contents summary
Electricity and Magnetism:
Electric charge and Coulomb's law - Dielectric constant - The electric field - Electric
work and electrostatic potential - Volt - Dipolar field and potential - The electric
double layer - Eletctrocardiogram (dipolar aspects) - Gauss' theorem e its basic
applications - Faraday shield - Electrostatic induction and dielectric polarization -
Capacitance and capacitors - Capacitors combined in series and parallel - Current
intensity and current density - Ohm's law and resistance - Resistors combined in
series e parallel - Electromotive force - Kirchhoff's laws - Thermic effect of a current
- Electric conduction in liquids - Passage of the current in the human body -
Electronic structure of insulators, conductors and semiconductors (short account) -
Magnetic field and forces on currents and magnets - Biot/Savart law - Magnetic
permeability - Circulation of B and Ampère's theorem - Solenoid - Electromagnetic
induction and Faraday's and Lenz's laws - The autoinduction coefficient L -
Alternate tension and current - Impedance of a circuit anddissipated AC power -
Electromagnetic waves - Photoelectric effect and photons - Thermoionic emission
Reflection and refraction laws and dispersion of the light - Total reflection and
optical fiber - The endoscope (short account ) - Elements of spectral analysis -
Optical systems, focal points, and dioptric power - Thin lenses and mirrors, and
graphic construction of the images - Compound microscope - Resolution limit -
Optical aberrations - The eye as a dioptric system - Common dioptric defects of the
eye and correction by thin lenses - Wave properties of the light - Light diffraction
and Huyghens' principle - Diffraction grating - Polarization of the light and
polarimetry - Laser light: production, properties and applications in Medicine - The
electronic microscope (short account)
Atom, Nucleus, and Radiations:
Atomic structure - Bohr and Bohr/Sommerfeld models of the atom - Emission and
absorption of photons, andluminescence - X-rays: production and properties -
Mechanisms of X-ray absorption in the matter - Radiological imaging - Nucleus
structure and isotopes - Natural radioactivity: alpha, beta, and gamma radiation and
absorption properties - Radioactive decay and mean life.
Optics: Reflection and refraction - Total reflection and optical fiber - Optical system, focus and dioptric power - Spherical diopter - Thin lenses, mirrors and image construction - Compound microscope - Resolution strength - The eye as a dioptric system - Principal ametropies of the eye and their correction using lenses - Wave theory of light - Laser light.
Electricity, magnetism and electrical current: Electrical charges and Coulomb’s law - Electrical field - Work of the electrical field and electrostatic potential - Dipolar field - Overview of muscle fiber and electrocardiogram - Gauss’s theorem and its applications - Faraday cage - Electrical capacity and capacitor - Current intensity - Overview of the electronic structure of insulators, metallic conductors and semiconductors - Ohm’s law - Series and parallel resistors – Electromotive force - Thermal effect of current - Electrical conduction in liquids - Passing of current in the human body -Thermoionic and photoelectric effects - Magnetic field and its action on current and magnets - Biot-Savart law - Ampere’s theorem of circulation - Solenoid - Electromagnetic induction - Self-induction – Alternating voltage and current - Impedance - Electromagnetic waves.
Radiation: Structure of the atom and nucleus - Quantum numbers, electronic orbitals and transitions - Unstable isotopes and alpha, beta, gamma radiation - Law of radioactive decay and half-life - Radiation detection - Biomedical applications of radioisotopes - X-rays (production, properties and absorption mechanisms in the matter) - Radiological image - Overview of computerised axial tomography (CAT) and radiofrequency (NMR) imaging techniques- Overview of radiation safety.
1. Lecture notes.
2. Bersani, Bettati, Biagi, Capozzi, Feroci, Lepore, Mita, Ortalli, Roberti, Viglino, Vitturi: Elementi di Fisica, Ed. Piccin Nuova Libraria (Padova).
3. Giambattista, McCarthy Richardson, Richardson: Fisica Generale, Ed. McGraw-Hill (Milano).
4. J. Walker: Fondamenti di Fisica, Ed. Zanichelli.
5. Scannicchio: Fisica Biomedica, Ed. EdiSES (Napoli).
6. Resources and links from the Internet
Assessment methods and criteria