HEAD AND NECK DISEASES
Learning outcomes of the course unit
To educate the student on the pathophysiology and clinical course of the main diseases affecting the cervico-facial segment. The Course will encompass (a) lectures, (b) tutorials and (c) seminars. Students will, by default, attend all lectures and tutorials, but are free to choose the seminar(s), they are most interested in. Upon completion of the Course, each student will be able to discuss basic clinical cases, involving the cervico-facial segment, by creating individual flow charts on diagnostics and therapeutics.
Having successfully completed the pre-clinical Courses
Course contents summary
OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (SSD MED31, n = 3 CFU) and AUDIOLOGY (SSD MED32, n = 1 CFU): (a) general otorhinolaryngoiatric semeiotics (with particular attention to the cochlear and vestibular systems). (b) Ear pathology (acute and chronic otitis and their sequelae; complications of the oto-mastoiditis; differential diagnosis of deafness and vertigo; Otosclerosis; Ménière’s disease; Vestibular schwannoma; Deafness and mutism; facial nerve palsy).(c) Nose and sinus pathology (rhinitis and sinusitis, epistaxis, nasal obstruction syndrome). (d) Oro-pharyngeal pathology (chronic and acute tonsillitis). (e) Rhino-pharyngeal pathology (adenoids, fibroangioma of the nasopharynx). (f) Phoniatry (semeiotics and differential diagnosis of voice disorders, wording and language dysfunction). (g) Laryngeal pathology (acute and chronic laryngitis, vocal cord paralysis, clinical indication for tracheotomy). (h) Malignant neoplasms in otorhinolaryngology.
AND DENTAL MEDICINE (SSD MED28, n = 1 CFU) : DENTAL MEDICINE (SSD MED28, n = 1 CFU) : Anatomy of teeth, oral tissues and maxillary bones, anatomy and physiology of mandibular movement, physiopathology of the temporo-mandibular joint, prevention and therapy of dental caries and acute/chronic parodontitis with involvement of the maxillary tissues, pathology of the oral mucosa, pathology of maxillary bones, pre-cancer dysplasia and lesions, oro-facial pain, basics of dental prosthesis and orthodontics, preventive oral care, dental traumathology.
MAXILLO-FACIAL SURGERY (SSD MED29, n = 1 CFU) Clefts lip and palate: embryology, clinics, therapy; Clinical features of the main cranio-facial malformations; Dentofacial anomalies: clinics, therapy; Surgical pathology of the salivary glands (with special interest to parotid tumors); Oral cavity cancer: etiopathogenesis, clinics, therapy; Malignant tumors of the paranasal sinuses: diagnosis, clinics, therapy; Reconstructive surgery of the head and neck region: general concepts and short accounts of the main used flaps; Traumatology of the maxillo-facial district: clinics, therapy.
OPHTHALMOLOGY (SSD MED30, n = 3 CFU): Eye refraction. Refractive disease: pathophysiology and treatment (basics of refractive surgery), Basics of ophthalmic instrumental diagnostics (perimetry, electrophysiology, fluorangiography, echography). Orbit and lcrimal tract diseases. Differential diagnosis of anterior segment disease: basics on conjunctivitits, keratitis, uveitis. Glaucomas: chronic open angle, congenital, secondary, chronic and acute closed angle. The cataracts: congenital, acquired, age-related. Basics on cataract surgery. Retinal vascular diseases (arterial and venous occlusion). Diabetic and hypertensive retinopathy: diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, predictive value on long-term life-span prognosis. Vitreoretinal pathologies: rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, proliferative vitreo-retinopathy (PVR), age-related maculopathy, retinopathy of prematurity. Eyeball neoplasms: uveal melanoma, retinoblastoma. Basics in neurophthalmology: optic neuritis, papilledema, anisokoria, chiasmatic syndrome and optic tract compression. Uveitis and systemic disease. Congenital and concomitant strabismus. Functional ambliopia: diagnosis, treatment, prevention. Paralitic strabismus and gaze palsy.
HUMAN ANATOMY (SSD BIO/16, n = 1 CFU): Anatomy of head and neck. Topographical anatomy of the face, the neck parothideal region and temporal and infra-temporal area.
G. Rossi, Manuale di Otorinolaringoiatria, Ed. Minerva Medica
A. Quaranta, R. Fiorella, Manuale di Otorinolaringoiatria, Ed. Mc Graw-Hill, Libri Italia s.r.l.
Del Bo, Giaccai, Grisanti, Manuale di Audiologia, Masson Editore
G. Ficarra, Manuale di Patologia e Medicina Orale, Ed. Mc Graw-Hill
R. Modica, Trattato di Odontoiatria Clinica, Ed. Minerva Medica
R. Brusati, M. Chiapasco Elementidi Chirurgia Oro-Maxillo-Facciale Ed. Masson
J.C. Posnick: Craniofacial and maxillofacial surgery in children and young adults, Ed. Saunders
Thawley, Panje, Batzakis, Lindberg: Comprehensive management of head and neck tumors, Ed. Saunders
Urken, Cheney, Sullivan, Biller: Atlas of regional and free flaps for head and neck reconstruction, Ed. Raven
Fonseca, Walker, Betts, Barber: Oral and maxillofacial trauma, Ed. Saunders
C. Sborgia – N. Delle Noci, Malattie dell’Apparato Visivo, Ed. Piccin
J.J. Kanski, Oftalmologia clinica, Ed. Elsevier
L. Bonomi, Argomenti di Oftalmologia, Protei Editori
M. Miglior – B. Bagolini – B. Boles Carenino – N. Orzatesi – L. Scullica M. Zingirian, Oftalmologia Clinica, Ed. Monduzzi
Oral and practical lesson. the course will start covering the recall of the anatomy of the area. Then, the program will be covered in order to discuss similar topics (e.g. basics in diagnostics, trauma, neoplasms, pediatric diseases etc.) at teh same time within the frame of the individual disciplines (e.g. ophthalmology, ORL, dental and maxillary sciences).
Assessment methods and criteria
Oral exam. The student will be tested on each of the main topics of the Course (i.e. Ophthaomology, ORL, dental and maxillary sciences). An inadequate level of knowledge, in any of those topics, will lead to failure .