Learning outcomes of the course unit
Acquisition of the knowledge on the mechanisms at the basis of cellular and tissue homeostasis, on transport and communication mechanisms and on resting metabolic rate.
Acquisition of the knowledge on the functions of the different organs and apparata, their dynamis integration and the general mechanisms of corntrol of their functions in rest conditions and during physical activity.
To know the main functional parameters in healthy individuals
To know the main mechanisms od the sensory and motor functions of the central nervous system and of sensorimotor transformation processings.
To know the mechanisms at the basis of the muscle contraction and of the muscle performance
Course contents summary
General physiology; Physiology of organs and apparata; Muscle
physiology; Neurophysiology of the visual system
The cell membrane
Cell membrane structure; membrane proteins; transport mechanisms across membranes.
Electrical properties of membranes
Electrochemical gradients; passive and active ion channels; resting membrane potential; passive electrical properties of the membrane; action potential, genesis and conduction; classification of nerve fibers.
Electrical and chemical synapses; neuromuscular transmission; synapses in the central nervous system, neurotransmitters; receptors.
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
Autonomic nervous system; vegetative reflexes
HEART AND BLOOD CIRCULATION
Physical principles of hemodynamics; blood physical properties; properties of the heart muscle: autogeneration of action potentials, conduction of action potentials, excitability, contraction; electrophysiology of the heart muscle; mechanical events of the cardiac cycle; cardiac output; regulation of heart functions; circulation system; vasomotor regulation; arterial blood pressure; venous blood pressure and venous blood return
Physical properties of gases; functional anatomy of the lungs; lung volumes and total lung capacity; mechanics of external respiration; lung compliance; respiratory resistances; Inhaled, alveolar and exhaled air; gases exchanges through the alveolo-capillary barrier; gases transport in the blood; blood flow through the lungs; ventilation-perfusion relationships; regulation of respiration.
Structure and functions of the skeletal muscle
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE VISUAL SYSTEM
Anatomy of the eye. Structure of the retina and phototransduction. Ganglion cells of the retina. Anatomy of visual pathways from the retina to the visual cortex. Magnocellular and parvocellular pathways. Deficits after lesions of visual pathways. Primary visual cortex. Higher order visual pathways. Motion perception, Percetion of depth, shape and color. Visual attention. Agnosia
Fisiologia dell’uomo, a cura di P.E. Di Prampero e A. Veicsteinas, Casa Editrice EDI-ERMES, Milano
Kandel, Schwartz and Jessel. Principi di Neuroscienze. Ed. Ambrosiana, Terza Edizione. Chapters on visual system only
Assessment methods and criteria