HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY AND THE VISUAL SYSTEM
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Acquisition of the knowledge on the mechanisms at the basis of cellular and tissue homeostasis, on transport and communication mechanisms and on resting metabolic rate.
Acquisition of the knowledge on the functions of the different organs and apparata, their dynamis integration and the general mechanisms of corntrol of their functions in rest conditions and during physical activity.
To know the main functional parameters in healthy individuals
To achieve a basic knowledge of the physiology of visual system and to study more in depth some visual submodalities
Course contents summary
General physiology; Physiology of organs and apparata; Muscle
physiology; Neurophysiology of the visual system
The cell membrane
Cell membrane structure; membrane proteins; transport mechanisms across membranes.
Electrical properties of membranes
Electrochemical gradients; passive and active ion channels; resting membrane potential; passive electrical properties of the membrane; action potential, genesis and conduction; classification of nerve fibers.
Electrical and chemical synapses; neuromuscular transmission; synapses in the central nervous system, neurotransmitters; receptors.
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
Autonomic nervous system; vegetative reflexes
Muscular tissue; organization of the skeletal muscular tissue, contraction; excitation-contraction coupling; types of contraction; muscle performance: single muscle fiber, motor unit.
HEART AND BLOOD CIRCULATION
Physical principles of hemodynamics; blood physical properties; properties of the heart muscle: autogeneration of action potentials, conduction of action potentials, excitability, contraction; electrophysiology of the heart muscle; mechanical events of the cardiac cycle; cardiac output; regulation of heart functions; circulation system; vasomotor regulation; arterial blood pressure; venous blood pressure and venous blood return
Physical properties of gases; functional anatomy of the lungs; lung volumes and total lung capacity; mechanics of external respiration; lung compliance; respiratory resistances; Inhaled, alveolar and exhaled air; gases exchanges through the alveolo-capillary barrier; gases transport in the blood; blood flow through the lungs; ventilation-perfusion relationships; regulation of respiration.
Functional anatomy; blood flow through the kidney; glomerulus and glomerular filtration; tubular reabsorption and secretion; clearance; urinary constituents; regulation of the kidney functions; micturition.
Functional anatomy; hormonal and nervous control of digestive functions; motility of digestive tract: mastication, deglutition, gastric and intestinal motility; defecation; secretive functions: salivary, gastric, intestinal, pancreatic and bile; digestive and absorption processes.
PHYSIOLOGY OF THE VISUAL SYSTEM
Anatomy and physiology of the retina. Functions of photoreceptors, bipolar and ganglion cells. Anatomy and physiology of visual pathways: superior colliculus, nuclear geniculate body, visual cortex. Magno- and parvocellular pathway. Simple and complex cells. Modular organization of V1. Higher order visual areas: perception of color, movement and shape.
Fisiologia dell’uomo, a cura di P.E. Di Prampero e A. Veicsteinas, Casa Editrice EDI-ERMES, Milano
Kandel, Schwartz, Jessell: Principi di Neuroscienze, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
Assessment methods and criteria