Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course objective is to render engineering students capable of translating three-dimensional geometric models into normatively correct representations typical of construction and architecture, as well as to understand them from reading technical drawings and cartography.
Design, in fact, is the preferential language through which we express the operations of analyses and the nature of the intentionality of the plan as part of construction interventions inherent in civil engineering, be it expressed through traditional technical representations or computer assisted.
During the course, the study and the application of different representational methods, through descriptive geometry, will enable you to develop graphical language and the expressiveness of a student in the specific areas of civil engineering and of that inherent in construction systems in a particular manner.
Course contents summary
The course is conducted through theoretical lectures the content of which is essentially composed of Descriptive Geometry themes to provide an understanding of the various projective modalities by which it is possible to develop designs, also inorder to render uniform the expressive abilities of students from different secondary and advanced didactic backgrounds.
To provide continuous and progressive learning of the systems of representation, some individual exercises will be parallelly and concurrently assigned, which will consist in the elaboration of graphic plates, to be continuously corrected, and which themes will follow exactly those of the lectures in order to verify learning of the methods of representation.
In detail, the lectures revolve around the following subject matter:
The geometries of the plane; The principal graphic constructions of the plane.
Orthogonal Projections: The representation of basic geometric entities; Conditions of belonging, parallelism and orthogonality; Points, lines and planes in particular positions.Reversals of particular and generic planes. True size of plane figures.
Orthogonal projections: problems of measurement and Intersections.
Dimensioned Projections: basic concepts; geometrical conditions of belonging, orthonogality, parallelism; metric problems. Dimensioned plane, level curve plane.
Parallel or axonometric projections: Pohlke’s theorem; Orthogonal and Oblique axonometry; Representation basic geometric entities; Conditions of appearance, parallelism; Intersection.
Central or perspective projection: theoretical outlines and terminology; Central Perspective; Accidental Perspective.
Homological Applications: Homological elements: centre, axis, couples of corresponding entitie.; Types of homology: perspectivism - affinity - similarity (homothecy) - Translation. Homological applications.
The exercises will be done with traditional graphical tools (A3 white paper - 42.00 x 29.70 cm -, pencils, graduated right angles, compass, French curve, erasers, etc.).
The graphic drawings will be collected weekly in the classroom and will be corrected and assessed by the professor. All designs will be collected from the students and presented at the final exam.
At the end of lectures on descriptive geometry, a classroom ex tempore test will be effected on the content of these lectures.
Simultaneously, some papers will be presented regarding the applicative implications of different projection methods, concerning the representation of typical civil engineering subjects at different scales of representation to make students able to graphically express the contents of subsequent courses, focusing on human achievements in the constructional field.
In detail, the lectures will be structured as follows:
architectural scale drawing;
working design and installations scale drawing;
territory scale drawing;
urban scale drawing.
As feedback from these lectures, some graphic plates will be realised by students, again using traditional design instruments, relating to the representation of building structures on different reduction scales.
Also required will be the realisation of a final exercise which envisages the application of the concepts learned relating to the principles of building representation on different scales of a building previously agreed upon with the professor.
The building elements must be represented on different scales of representation and will be composed strictly on a single graphics plate, in A1 size (84 x 59.4 cm), horizontally positioned; the representation technique to be used for the preparation of this final drawing to be presented at the examination (subject to obligatory review by the faculty), is necessarily that of traditional hand drawing.
On Descriptive Geometry:
M. Bocconcino, A. Osello, C. Vernizzi: “Disegno e Geometria”, collana “Il Disegno e l’Ingegnere”, Levrotto and Bella, Turin, 2006.
M. Docci, D. Maestri: “Scienza del disegno”, UTET Libreria, Turin, 2000.
On Architectural Design:
M. Bocconcino, A. Osello, C. Vernizzi, A. Zerbi: “Il disegno del territorio, della città e dell’architettura: applicazioni per allievi ingegneri e architetti”, series “Il Disegno e l’Ingegnere”, Levrotto and Bella, Turin, 2009.
C. Cundari, “Il Disegno. Ragioni. Fondamenti. Applicazioni.” Edizioni Kappa, Rome, 2006.
M. Docci: “Teoria a pratica del disegno”, Laterza, Rome-Bari, 1996.
For students who have, during the course, dealt with Descriptive Geometry graphics plates, as well as successively passed the ex tempore test effected at the end of the first cycle of lectures, the examination will be oral and will focus on the contents of the lectures held on the Descriptive Geometry issues and on a discussion of the final research plate that has previously been agreed upon with the professor, as well as related issues inherent in Civil Design.
The students who do not sit or do not pass the ex tempore test, must sit a written test, still concerning the contents of Descriptive Geometry (the plates of which are in any event to be realised) for admission to the final oral examination that will cover the contents of lectures conducted on Descriptive Geometry issues and a discussion of the final plate, previously agreed upon with the faculty, as well as related issues inherent in Civil Design.
Assessment methods and criteria
For those students who prepared drawings as part of the Descriptive Geometry course and who passed the extemporaneous exam given at the conclusion of the first cycle of lessons, the exam
will be an oral one based on the content of the lessions given on
Descriptive Geometry and the presentation of one or more final study drawings, on a topic agreed upon in advance with the teaching staff.
Students who do not perform or do not pass the extemporaneous exam must sit
a written exam on topics related to Descriptive Geometry in order to be admitted to the final