DAMS AND WEIRS
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course presents the basic knowledge about water diversions with and without flow regulation. The main types of dams are rewieved, according to the Italian Regolamento Dighe. Weirs and floodgates are presented. Some basic information is given about fluvial and coastal structures concerning inland and marine navigation.
Knowledge and understanding:
By the end of the course, students should be able to choose flow regulation opportunities with their adequate barrage types, according to aims of the reservoir, hydrology of the watercourse and geomorphology of the valley. Students should also be able to evaluate structures necessary for harbour protection from sea waves.
Applying knowledge and understanding:
Students should be able to directly develop static and hydraulic feasibility design of those types of dams and weirs (including maritime works) amenable to elementary computational frameworks.
Mainly through numerical exercises and their technical reports, students should increase their ability to efficiently convey their own technical ideas and findings about the project. The logical and mathematical pathway between data and results should clearly be stated through the use and development of graphical, numerical and verbal communication tools.
Different levels of readers should be learned how to be addressed, from institutional customers to technical users.
Learning ability :
The completion of the course should provide students not only with an increase of specific hydraulic infrastructure knowledge, but also with the grasp of the interdisciplinary nature of most of its subjects, compelling the engineer to deal, within the same project activity, with different disciplines. Fostering both interdisciplinary dialogue and interprofessional interaction should be an outcome of the course.
A good grasp of the following topics is recommended:
- hydrostatics and open channel hydraulics
- structure science
Some knowledge of geology and structure technique is also suggested.
Some skill in using PC tools such as Excel and Word is recommended.
Course contents summary
Introductory notes. General purpose of hydraulic structures. Water resource concept, resource/demand ratio. Water uses examined in the course:
A) Municipal water supply,
B) Agricultural supply,
C) Industrial (hydropower generation),
D) Transport and Navigation.
A-B) Municipal and Agricultural water supply : 1) Dams and Reservoirs, 2) Diversions and Offtakes, 3) Interceptions
1) Dams and Reservoirs: Regolamento Dighe, stresses over retenrion structures, design criteria, building, management and maintenance of dams. Gravity dams, arch dams, other concrete type dams. Earth dams, rockfill dams.
2) Diversions and offtakes: fixed weirs, movable floodgates,. Piping and heaving, saturated-unsaturated flow in porous media (analytical and empirical solutions). Levees, desilting basins, outlets.
3) Interceptions: spring interception, groundwater withdrawal.
C) Industrial use : hydropower generation : short outline
D) Transport and Navigation
1) Inland navigation : features of inland transport, international treaties on inland navigation. Natural waterways: canalization and regularization of waterways, Fargues laws. Man-made waterways: design criteria and linkage to the natural network. Subsidiary works: locks, canal-bridges, pumping plants.
2) Sea Navigation
Short account on winds, waves, currents, tides. Phenomena of wave motion: breaking, shoaling, rifraction, diffraction, reflection. Ports: piers, wharfs, docks.
DATEI C.: " Introduzione allo studio delle dighe ; sbarramenti in muratura ", Ed. Cortina, Padova
EVANGELISTI G.: " Impianti Idroelettrici ",(1° vol.), Ed. Patron, Bologna
FERRO G: " Costruzioni Marittime ",(2 voll.), Ed. CEDAM, Padova
The theoretical part of the course will be dealt with through frontal lectures, with the support of slides and videos projection.
Four numerical exercises will be introduced :
- stress analysis of a gravity dam
- stress analysis of an arch dam
- river flow regulation analysis through a multi-purpose reservoir
- statistical analysis of river diversion without flow regulation
At least two exercises should be completed autonomously by each student and produced on paper or magnetic support, in order to be admitted to the final oral examination.
Assessment methods and criteria
In order to take the final examination in oral form, at least two of the four numerical exercises must be produced in advance, on paper or magnetical support, including graphs, numerical tables and technical description. The evaluation splits into two parts: 90% goes to the oral examination and 10% to the numerical exercises.
Lecture attendance is recommended