Learning outcomes of the course unit
Knowledge and understanding:
At the end of this course the student will complete his knowledge in hydraulics and hydrology with that related to hydraulic plant design and will be owner of the overall concepts at the basis of the design of the main hydraulic plants not studied in other courses. The student will have examined in depth the different types of hydraulic machines and their use, he will be aware of the main problems related to realization and operation of hydroelectric power plants, he will be in possess of the concepts at the basis of the design of pressurized and open-channel irrigation networks.
Applying knowledge and understanding:
At the end of his study the student will be able to design different types of hydroelectric power plants in their different aspects: water supply works definition, choice of the scheme, sizing of penstocks, regulation, art works and special parts. The student will be capable of choosing and sizing the hydraulic machines proper for the case of interest and will be able to design operation and regulation of hydroelectric groups. For what concerns the irrigation plants the student will be capable to preliminary design irrigation networks on the basis of watering methods and schemes.
By the end of the course, the student should own the instruments to identify and solve the main problems related to the design and operation of the hydraulic plants studied and of those that will be encountered in the future profession.
At the end of the course the student will be capable of a correct use of language at least for what concerns the technical nomenclature proper of the course.
The final lessons and technical tours have the main aim of introducing the student into the more recent develops concerning the design and realization of traditional, small and micro hydroelectric plants. The students should be in possess of the basic knowledge of the discipline to carry on, in the future, a personal in depth investigation of the topic.
It is useful to have attended the course of Hydraulics.
It is useful to have attended the course of Hydrology.
It is useful to possess a basic knowledge of Windows and Excel.
Course contents summary
Part 1: Water supply
Theoretical issues: main pipelines, gravity and lift schemes, hydraulic transients control, charge and compensation basins, surge tanks.
Part 2: Hydropower Plants
Theoretical issues: basic schemes, plants with and without flow regulation, forced pipelines, interception, regulation and security valves, plant project and design.
Part 3: Hydraulic turbines
Theoretical issues: definitions, classification and functional features, fundamental equation of hydraulic turbines, similarity and specific speed, characteristic curves, problems in machine operation.
Part 4: Hydroelectric power plants
Theoretical issues: operating programs, automatic regulations of hydroelectric groups, pressure control and escape velocity of groups.
Exercises related to Parts 1-4: mass oscillation computations in hydropower plants, water hammer computations in hydropower plants.
Part 5: Micro and small power plants
Theoretical issues: types of plants, subsidy for small hydro projects, Italian rules.
Exercise: feasibility study and business plan for a small run of river hydropower plant.
Part 6: Irrigation plants
Theoretical issues: scope and definitions, relationships between soil, climate and crops, field water supply, pressurized and open-channel irrigation networks, watering methods and schemes. Outlines of drainage networks: hydrological references, scope, hydraulic design.
G. Evangelisti: Impianti Idroelettrici, Patron, Vol. 2. (Available at Biblioteca di Ingegneria e Architettura)
C. Datei: La protezione delle gallerie e delle condotte nei sistemi in pressione. Libreria Cortina, Pd. (Available at Biblioteca di Ingegneria e Architettura)
M. Tanzini: Impianti Idroelettrici – Progettazione e Costruzione, Dario Flaccovio Editore. ISBN 978-88-579-0192-3.
F. Andreolli: Impianti micro idroelettrici, Dario Flaccovio Editore. ISBN 978-88-579-0135-0.
G. De Marchi: Nozioni di idraulica con particolare riguardo ai problemi delle bonifiche e delle irrigazioni, Edagricole. (Available at Biblioteca di Ingegneria e Architettura)
C. Constantinidis: Bonifica ed Irrigazione, Edagricole. (Available at Biblioteca di Ingegneria e Architettura)
L. Pagniello: Impianti Irrigui: Scelta progettazione e realizzazione, REDA. (Available at Biblioteca di Ingegneria e Architettura)
Additional educational material available on the University web learning site “Web LEArning in Ateneo” (LEA UNIPR): Lecture slides.
Norms and Italian rules.
Text of all the exercises.
Slides will be used to convey the most important messages of the theory lectures. A series of laboratory exercises at the pc will be developed for the application and personal development of numerical codes devoted to the study of the problems related with hydroelectric and irrigation plants. Spreadsheets and more complex computing tools will be adopted.
At the end of the course in-depth lessons related to some of the main topics will be developed. Technical visits to some hydroelectric plants will be organized. Every student will develop the design of a high head hydroelectric plant under the supervision of the professor.
Assessment methods and criteria
The examination is based on an oral exam and on a written report presenting the preliminary design of a high head hydroelectric plant. The examination is weighted as follows: 60% oral exam (theory questions, application of theory also to original problems and speaking ability), 40% written report discussion.
Lecture attendance is highly recommended.