Learning outcomes of the course unit
The objectives of the General Pathology course are to enable the acquisition of knowledge and understanding about etio-pathogenetic mechanisms of human diseases with their related essential notions of semeiotic and medical terminology and mechanisms and alterations of the innate and adaptive immune response. Great emphasis will be given to pathology, oncology and molecular immunology in order to allow the student to apply the knowledge gained to the understanding of the mechanisms of drug action and to acquire useful skills for future employment.
Course contents summary
Etiology. Cellular pathology. Molecular and Cellular Oncology. Immunology and Immunopathology. Acute and chronic inflammation. Tissue repair. Genetic, biochemistry, metabolic and endocrine Pathology. Pathophysiology of blood. Cardiovascular pathophysiology. Pathophysiology of respiratory and gastrointestinal apparatus.
Environmental Pathology. Radiation injury by ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Chemical injury. Nutrition and disease: nutritional deficiencies, vitamin deficiencies, obesity, food and cancer.
Intrinsic causes of disease. The molecular mechanisms of mutations and DNA repair. Transmission patterns of single-gene disorders. Disorders with multifactorial inheritance. Cytogenetic disorders.
Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Hyperplasia, hypertrophy, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia. Cellular aging. free radical pathology. Oxidative stress. Necrosis and apoptosis.
Neoplasia. Definitions and nomenclature. Benign and malignant neoplasms. Grading and staging of tumors. Molecular basis of cancer. Oncogenic DNA and RNA virus. Protooncogenes, oncogenes and oncoproteins. Tumor suppressor genes. Survival and pro-apoptoticc genes. DNA repair genes. Molecular basis of multistep carcinogenesis. Angiogenesis. Tumor progression. Invasion and metastasis. Chemical carcinogenesis: initiation and promotion. Carcinogenic chemicals. Radiation carcinogenesis. Microbial carcinogenesis. Genetic predisposition to cancer. Effects of tumours on the host. Nutritional and hormonal effects. Biological basis of anti-neoplastic therapies.
Immunology and immunopathology
Innate immunity. Acquired immunity. Antigens. The structural and functional aspects of Antibodies. T and B lymphocytes and their receptors. The Major Histocompatibility System (MHC). Activation of B and T lymphocytes. Anatomy of the immune response. The production of effectors of the immune response: antibodies, TH1, TH2, TC lymphocytes, cytokines.
Immunity to bacteria, virus and protozoa. Vaccinations. Congenital and acquired Immunodeficiencies. Hypersensitivity. Immunologic tolerance and pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Tumor immunology. Transplantation.
General features of acute inflammation: vascular changes, cellular events and chemical mediators. Types of acute inflammation. Systemic effects. Fever and hyperthermia. Chronic inflammation: types, morphologic features and granuloma. Tissue repair.
Blood and Hematopoiesis. Sickle cell disease. Iron deficiency anemia. Megaloblastic anemias. Thalassemia syndromes. Leukemia and lymphoma
Hemostasis. Trombosis, embolism, angina and myocardial infarction. Atherosclerosis. Hypertension and hypotension. Edema.
Disorders of the respiratory system
Obstructive pulmonary diseases. Emphysema. Chronic bronchitis. Asthma. Pulmonary infections
Disorders of the gastrointestinal system.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease. Acute and hgastritis. Peptic ulcer disease. Malabsorption syndromes. Celiac disease. Crohn disease.
Biochemical, metabolic and endocrine disorders
Disorders of the metabolism of amino acids. Pathogenesis of type1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Disorders of lipids circulation in the plasma. Familial hypercholesterolemia. Steatosis. Cystic fibrosis. Diseases by extracellular accumulation: amyloidosis, prion diseases. Disorders of the thyroid: hyper and ipo-thyroidism, thyroiditis.
Robbins e Cotran: Le Basi Patologiche delle Malattie. Elsevier VIII edizione.
Pontieri-Russo-Frati: Patologia Generale.Piccin IV edizione
Abbas A.K. e LIchtman: Le basi dell’ Immunologia. Fisiopatologia del Sistema Immunitario. MASSON Elsevier II edizione.
The topics in the program will be presented and discussed through lectures, with the aid of iconographic material, trying to involve the student so that it can be an active part of the lesson.
Assessment methods and criteria
The assessment of the achievement of the objectives of the course provides an oral examination. Through questions regarding the course content will be determined whether the student has achieved the goal of knowledge and understanding of the content and if he has reached the goal of applying the acquired knowledge. The student at the end of the course, using the knowledge acquired in other courses will need to demonstrate knowledge and understanding about the mechanisms etiopathogenetic of human diseases with their related essential symptoms and medical terminology.