BIOCHEMISTRY AND ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
To provide fundamental knowledge on animal physiology
Course contents summary
PRINCIPLES OF THE GENERAL CELL PHYSIOLOGY. Cell physiology, Homeostasis.
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM:. Excitable tissues: nerve cells. The synapsis. resting potential and action. Synaptic and junctional transmission. Neurotransmitters. The sense organs and receptors: classification, coding of sensory information. The chemical senses: taste and smell. Physiology of hearing and vision. The somatic nervous system. Function of conduction, reflex and trophic of the spinal cord. Brainstem and cranial nerves. Cerebellum and its relationship with the segmental brain. Regulation of muscle tone, balance and voluntary movement. Thalamus and the cerebral hemispheres. The hypothalamus and the limbic system. Cerebral cortex. Autonomic nervous system: sympathetic and parasympathetic branches and their emergency. Similarities and differences between vegetative and somatic reflex arc. Neurochemical transmission.
THE MUSCOLARY SYSTEM: striated and smooth muscle cells, myocardium,
neuromuscular transmission. Role of Ca + +. Electrical stimulation and contractile response. Simple contraction and tetanus. Heat production in muscle. Fundamentals of biomechanics. The smooth muscle: mechanical, electrophysiological, nervous and humoral control.
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Conformation of the alimentary canal and digestion in different animal species. Endocrine and nervous regulation of the secretory activity of digestive glands of the alimentary canal. Gastrointestinal motility in monogastrics and polygastrics. Biochemistry and microbial flora, ruminal volatile fatty acid absorption and their metabolic fate. Absorption of end products of digestion, water and electrolytes in the small intestine.
ENDOCRINOLOGY: hormones and their function. TheNeuro-endocrine control.
REPRODUCTION: Reproduction physiology: puberty, oestrus, placenta and its functions, pregnancy, childbirth determinism.
PHYSIOLOGY OF LACTATION: Lactation physiology in raising breast, lactogenesis, milk ejection, metabolic and environmental aspects.
RENAL PHYSIOLOGY The kidney function and the mineral bilance of the organism
THE FISIOLOGY OF CARDIOCIRCULATORY SYSTEM: The cardiac muscle: cardiac innervation, conduction tissue, cardiac electrophysiology
Bortolami Fisiologia degli animali domestici il sole 24 ore edasgricole
• Gobetto, Pelagalli, Anatomia e Fisiologia degli Animali Domestici, UTET
• Guyton, A. Trattato di Fisiologia Medica,.C., PICCIN, Padova.
• Cunningham,J.G., Texbook of Veterinary Physiology, Saunders Company, USA.
• Duke's, Physiology of Domestic Animals, Melvin, J.S., Cordell University press.
• De Rensis Fisiologia degli Animali domestici
• Eckert R, Fisiologia animale, Zanichelli, Bologna.
• Moruzzi G. Fisiologia della vita di relazione, UTET, Torino.
• Gordon Fisiologia Animale Piccin
• Schmidt Nielsen Fisiologia Animale Piccin
toretical and practical lessons, seminar
Assessment methods and criteria
written and oral exam