Learning outcomes of the course unit
The students will acquire in-depth the knowledge on the main mechanisms of the cell and tissue damage, in term of the different kind of etiology of the diseases, of the tissue adaptation and cof the cell death; the students have also to know the cellular and molecular mechanism which regulate the inflammatory and innate responses and tissue renewal and repair. They have to know and understand the etiology, pathogenesis and physiopathology of the neoplastic diseases (General Pathology). Teh students will also acquire basic concepts and mechanisms of immune-mediated pathologies in animals focusing on some autimmune diseases (Immunopathology). The students have to acquire knowledge on the physiopathological mechanisms at mean organs and apparatus aiming at understandins the functional implication during organ's failure (Physiopathology).
During the lab activity of histopathology the students will acquired the abiliy to identify and evaluate the cell damage and types of inflammation by means of the microscopic observation of pathological tissue samples for a diagnostic application.
During immunopathology laboratory activity the students will acquire the ability to treat blood sample for cytometry for lymphocyte characterization and for ELISpot analysis.
In physiopathology practice, the students will learn to prepare cytologic samples for the observation and diagnostic description of cases of anaemia.
During "Classroom practice" the students will learn to apply the knowledge and understandings in physiopatology of the immune response to infection and of organ failure to solve some problems of practical application.
Propedeutics to: Pathological Anatomy – Internal Medicine – Pathologoicaol Surgery and Radiology – Infectious Diseases – Ostetrics
Propedeutics done: Microbiology and Iiia e Immunologia - Epidemiologia, Fisiologia II - Endocrinologia
Course contents summary
The etiology and pathogenesis of diseases, cellular and molecular mechanisms of tissue and cell damage and adaptation and cell death. Cellular and molecular aspects of inflammatory and innate responses; tissue renewal and repair. Etiology, pathogenesis and physiopathology of the neoplastic diseases (General Pathology). The main physiopathological aspects of organs and apparatus (Physiopathology). Immune-mediated pathologies in animals (Immunopathology).
CONTENTS OF THEORETICAL LESSONS
Homeostasis, health and disease : basic concepts of causes and pathogenesis of the diseases
Etiology (causes of cell and tissue pathology): Infectious agents (the main mechanisms of injury by virus e bacteria); Chemical agents (the main mechanisms of chemical injury; Physical agents (radiation injury, thermal injuries, mechanical forces); Nutritional deficiencies; Basics on genetic defects.
Cell, tissue and systemic adaptive response:
- Molecular aspects of cell adaptation (heat shock proteins, anti-oxidants, response to DNA damage, functional adaptive response;
- Tissue adaptation: hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy, metaplasia;
- The stress adaptive response
Reversible and irreversible cell injury:The models of cell damage by hypoxia and free radicals
The cell death
- Necrosis: biochemical and morphologic aspects, types of necrosis;
- Apoptosis: causes (physiologic and pathologic apoptosis), morphologic and biochemical features and mechanisms.
Acute and chronic inflammation:
- General features: etiology, classification and development; Vascular and cellular events of acute inflammation; Inflammatory cells; chemical mediators of inflammation Outcomes of acute inflammation; Cellular events and regulation;
- Primary chronic inflammation and granulomatous inflammation (causes and pathogenetic mechanisms);
- Acute Phase Reactions.
- The fever
Tissue renewal and repair: regeneration; repair by healing; bone fracture repair and cutaneous wound healing; factors influencing wound healing.
- Definition, general features and nomenclature;
Molecular basis of cancer: oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, apoptosis genes;
Biology of the neoplastic cell ( transformation and progression, heterogeneity);
- Etiology and epidemiology: chemical, radiation and microbial carcinogenesis; Differential aspects between benign and malignant neoplasms and classification;
- Invasion and metastasis; immune response against neoplastic cells; paraneoplastic syndromes; diagnostic and prognostic markers of malignant neoplasms.
Hypersensitivity: etiology, pathogenesis and examples of immune-mediated diseases ( Type I, Type II, Type III and Type IV hypersensitivity).
Autoimmunity : mechanisms of immunologic tolerance, general concepts and pathogenetic mechanisms, mechanisms of immune-mediated damage, examples of autoimmune diseases.
Immunosuppression: hereditary and acquired immunodeficiency
Nutrition and immunity
Infection and immunity : damage by virus and bacteria, endotoxic and septic shock, the innate and adaptive immune response to virus and bacteria.
Physiopathology of bone and joints:
- Calcium/phosphorus imbalances;
- Metabolic bone diseases (rickets, osteoporosis, osteomalacia, fibrous osteodistrophy Calcium/Phosphorus balance’s disorders.
- Degenerative and dyschondroplastic joint diseases in animals
Physiopathology of kidney: acute and chronic failure, nephrotic and uremic syndromes
Physiopathology of blood: leukocytosis, leukopenia, anaemia, polycvthemia, hemorrhagic disorders.
Physiopathology of water and acido-base imbalances: dehydration, acidosis and alkalosis.
Hemodynamic disorders. edema, hyperaemia, haemostasis and thrombosis, embolism, infarction, shock.
Hepatic physiopathology: jaundice, steatosis, liver failure
Basics of lung and cardiac physiopathology the respiratory failure, edema, emphysema, the hearth failure.
CONTENTS OF PRACTICE ACTIVITY.
1)LABORATORY ACTIVITY (histopathology lab): observation of microscopic features of:
- Cellular degenerations: cloudy swelling, hydropic and vacuolar degeneration, steatosis,
intracellular protein accumulation di
PREPARATORY BOOKS FOR EXAMINATION:
1) V Kumar, A. Abbas, N. Fausto: “Robbins e Cotran: Le basi patologiche delle malattie. vol. 1 Patologia Generale” (2010), Elsevier Italia, Srl, Milano.
2) McGavin M.D., Zachary J.F. Patologia generale veterinaria. (2008). Elsevier Masson, Milano.
3) M.A. Russo, L. Frati, G.M. Pontieri. Patologia Generale vol. I e II (2009) Piccin, Padova. Piccin, Padova.
1) Tizard I.R. Veterinary Immunology. Saunders (USA)(2011).
2) Dunlop R.H. Malbert C.H. Veterinary Pathophysiology. (2004) Blackwell Publishing, Ames, USA. 3) Marcato P.S. Patologia Sistematica Veterinaria (2002). Edagricole, Bologna.
4) M.U. Dianzani- I. Dianzani- U. Dianzani Istituzioni di patologia generale IV ed. (2006) UTET, Torino;
5) Marcato P.S. Anatomia e istologia patologica generale veterinaria. (2000) Eusculapio, Bologna
The LESSONS are AVAILABLE ON LINE.
Theoretical lessons with Power Point slide presentation (72 hours).
Practical acitivity (20 hours) in Immunopathology and Histopathology Labs and Class room practice with solving problems.
Assessment methods and criteria
The student may choice between:
1) Written examination
15 multichoice questions with a open explanations and a brief oral question for
The final evaluation was determined considering a maximum of 2 points each response.
2) Oral examination: 3 questions on theoretical contents and 1 question on practicals contents
Oral examination was globally evaluated by all the responses on both theoretical and practical questions.
A mid-term (“in itinere”) written examination can be performed on the contents of general pathology, oncology and immune-pathology before the end of the lessons and the first official exam’s session.
Then, the students must complete the examination on the contents of physiopathology at the official session within the examination’s session of September.
Self-evaluation tests simulating a written examination will be carried around the end of the course.
The teacher is at students disposal for further explanations on the contents, during the course and for exam's preparation, and tutorial assistance. For this purpose, the reception is possible for students from Monday to Friday prior agreements via-email. In the event of notice not given the best days (compatibly with the commitment to teaching) are: Tuesday 9.30 to 11.30, Wednesday 10.30 to 12.30 or 15-17, or 15-17 Thursday 10,30-12,30.