HISTOLOGY EMBRYOLOGY ZOOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims to give at the student a specific knowledge of cytology, embryology, histology and zoology.
During the practical activities the student will learn to distinguish structural features of the tissues by optical microscope.
The student must demostrate to have learned study methods for the following areas: basic taxonomy, invertebrate/vertebrate zoology of those species of veterinary importance, basic cell function and mechanism, organization, expression and trasmission of genetic information, basic molecular biology, basic principals of animal behaviour.
Knowledge provided for the entrance examination Recovery of educational debt
Course contents summary
Notions of general embryology and placentation.
Notions of cytology and histology: the cell, epithelial tissues, connective tissue, muscle tissue, nerve tissue; method of making up and interpretation of histological sections.
During practical activities by optical microscope the student will learn to distinguish structural characteristics of tissues and their organization in organs.
Notions of zoology.
The origin and evolution of life on earth. Cell strucrure and function. DNA structure and replication. Genetic engineering. Mendelian genetics.The hisory and development of evolutionary theory. Genetic, ecological and ethological aspects of the speciation process. Taxonomy, form and function of invertebrate and vertebrate animals of primary veterinary medical interest. Vertetebrate evolution and adaptation of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Circulatory, digestive, urinary, muscular, skeletal and nervous systems are explored from an evolutionary point of view. Growth models and carrying capacity. Basic concept of animal behavior. History of animal behavior studies. Applied ethology to asses the animal welfare.
The origin of life on Earth.
The life: biological principles and science of zoology. The evolution of the cell. From molecules to the first cell.
The cell and continuity an of animal life.
From molecules to the first cell. From Procaryotes to Eucaryotes. From single cell to multicellular organism.
The evolution of life on Earth.
The history and development of evolutionary theory. The origin of species. The patterns of inheritance.
Diversity of animal life.
Architectural pattern of an animal. Classification and phylogeny of animals.
Co-evolution host-parasites. Adaptations to parasite life.
Molluscs. Arthropodes. Chordates: Fishes. Birds. Mammals.
Basic taxonomy. Invertebrate/Vertebrate structure and function of those species of primary veterinary medical interest.
Some principles of homeostasis. Internal fluids and respiration. Circulation. Excretion and thermoregulation.
Functional organization of animals.
Protection. Support and movement.
Overview of form an function of systems.
Digestive system. Nervous system. Reproductive system. Sensory system. (These topics are explored from an evolutionary point of view).
Animals and their environments.
Animal distribution and growth. Dynamics of ecosystems. Population ecology. Conservation biology.
Basic element of animal behaviour.
The study of animal behaviour and its applications in veterinary medicine.
Learning and instinct.
Reflexes. Modal action patterns. Associative learning. Classical conditioning. Instrumental conditioning.
Behavioural genetics, evolution and domestication.
Evolution of behaviour. The function of behaviour. Behavioural effects of domestication.
Social and reproductive behaviour.
Communication. Living in groups. Sexual interaction. Play Human and animal interactions.
Behavioural disturbances, stress and welfare.
Normal and abnormal behaviour. Stereotypies. Abnormal aggression. Stress. Assessing welfare. Behavioural indicators of welfare.
The history of animal behaviour studies.
The schools of the 20th century. Modern approaches to ethology. Applied ethology. Species-specific behaviour of some important domestic animals. (Images gallery. Video interview. Seminars. Population genetics test).
The Biological membrane and the Plasma membrane: structure.
Cytoplasmic organelles: Smooth and Rough Endoplasmatic Reticulum, Ribosomes, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, Peroxisomes, Mitocondria, Cytoskeleton: Microtubules, Microfilaments, Intermediate filaments; Centrioles, Centrosome.
Interphase Nucleus: Nuclear Envelope, Nucleoplasm: Nuclear Matrix, Chromatin: Euchromatin, Heterochromatin and Nucleolus.
Intercellular and cell to matrix junctions: Occluding junctions; Adherens Junctions: Adhesion belt, Desmosomes, Hemidesmosomes and Focal adhesions; Communicating junctions. Junctional complex.
Specializations of the apical edge of plasma membrane; structural features and localizations: Microvilli, Cilia, Sterociglia.
Stages of cell cycle. Proliferation state, potency and cell differentation.
Remind of cell division: Mitosis and Meiosis. Definition of programmed cell death.
Spermatogenesis e Oogenesis.
From spermiogenesis to anfimixis.
Gastrulation: formation of the three germ layers.
Derivates of the embryonic germ layers.
Placenta and extraembryonic membranes in mammals of veterinary interest.
Fetal circulation and adaptations to postnatal life.
Embrionyc anexa in birds.
Instruments and methods for cell and tissue observation and study.
Methods for the preparation of a histology section: sample harvest, fixation, dehydration, embedding, sectioning, staining and mounting.
Elements of histological staining.
Structural organization of organs: Pipe organ, Parenchymatous organs, Laminar organs.
Epithelium Tissue: Embryonic origin and distinctive tissue characteristics.
Lining Epithelium: Classification and
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COOPER G. M., HAUSMAN R. E.: La cellula un approccio molecolare, Piccin, Padova.2009.
BACHA W. J., WOOD L. M.: Atlante a colori di istologia veterinaria, Delfino, Roma, 2004.
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Cleveland P., Hickman JR. et al. Diversità animale. McGraw-Hill, 2008, Web site.
Cleveland P., Hickman JR. et al. Fondamenti di zoologia. McGraw-Hill, 2009, Web site.
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Theoretical training - Lectures: Cytology, Embriology, Histology, Zoology
Practical training: Recognition in histological slides by means of optical microscope of Epithelium tissue, Connective tissue, Muscle tissue, Neuron: cell body and nerve cell processes. Seminars, temate videos and population genetics test.
Assessment methods and criteria
Recognition of histological slide by light microscopy and oral exam
Oral exam with a randomly choose of the questions and images.
At the end of the course, the student must be able to use acquired knowledge and show clear understanding of the following:
- the mechanisms involved in the evolution of life on Earth;
- genetic principles responsible for the variety of animal life;
- taxonomic basis for the classification of animal species;
- basic elements of animal behaviour and ecology, aimed at allowing the student to critically evaluate animal welfare and well-being.