# PHYSICS

## Learning outcomes of the course unit

The course aims to give a basic prerequisite of Physics to other disciplines such as chemistry, biochemistry, physiology, biomechanics, etc.. Additionally, the student should understand the theoretical fundamentals of ever more widespread in basic research and in diagnostic practice as electrophoresis, centrifugation, nuclear magnetic resonance, ultrasound, optical fibers for endoscopic microscopy, laser, X-ray equipment, etc..

## Prerequisites

No one

## Course contents summary

THE BASICS OF PHYSICS

Physical quantities, dimensions, units of measure.

Kinematics: rectilinear uniform motion, uniformly accelerated motion, harmonic motion.

Principles of dynamics, force, work and energy, kinetic energy theorem; fields of conservative forces, potential energy, conservation of mechanical energy.

Levers and movement.

Phenomena of elasticity, Hooke's law and modulus of elasticity, elasticity of blood vessels and bones.

Thermodynamics

Temperature and heat.

Elements of the kinetic theory of gases, the absolute temperature, equation of state of an ideal gas and real gas.

Specific heat and their measure, changes in state and latent heat, heat propagation, heat and energy conservation, first and second law of thermodynamics.

STATICS AND DYNAMICS OF FLUIDS

Pressure in a fluid, Pascal's law, law of Stevin theorem and Archimedes, atmospheric pressure and its measurement, blood pressure and its measurement.

Surface tension, Laplace formula and its applications: capillarity and the law of Jurin, air embolism.

Flow of a conduit; Bernoulli's theorem and its applications, with particular attention to the bloodstream.

Real fluids and laminar flow, viscosity and Poiseuille's law, and turbulent Reynolds number.

ELECTRICITY, MAGNETISM AND ELECTRIC CURRENT

Electric charge and Coulomb's law, electric field and electrostatic potential, electrocardiogram and potential of biological membranes (notes).

Current, and Ohm's law, electromotive force.

Thermal effect of the current; current passage in the bodies.

Alternating voltage and current.

WAVES, ACOUSTIC RADIATION

Elastic waves and wave propagation, standing waves and resonance.

Distinctive characteristics of the sounds, intensity and loudness.

Doppler, ultrasound and their applications in biomedical and veterinary use.

Electromagnetic waves.

X-ray production and properties, interactions with matter.

Notes on X-ray computed tomography (CT) and radio frequency (NMR).

Alpha, beta, gamma: properties and effects; natural radioactivity; of radiation protection. Dosimetry

Laser radiation.

OPTICS AND SPECTROSCOPY

Reflection and refraction and total internal reflection and fiber optics.

Geometrical optics. Diopter spherical.

Compound microscope; resolving power of an optical instrument; aberrations.

Optical microscopes and electronic microscopes.

## Course contents

THE BASICS OF PHYSICS

Physical quantities, dimensions, units of measure.

Kinematics: rectilinear uniform motion, uniformly accelerated motion, harmonic motion.

Principles of dynamics, force, work and energy, kinetic energy theorem; fields of conservative forces, potential energy, conservation of mechanical energy.

Levers and movement.

Phenomena of elasticity, Hooke's law and modulus of elasticity, elasticity of blood vessels and bones.

Thermodynamics

Temperature and heat.

Elements of the kinetic theory of gases, the absolute temperature, equation of state of an ideal gas and real gas.

Specific heat and their measure, changes in state and latent heat, heat propagation, heat and energy conservation, first and second law of thermodynamics.

STATICS AND DYNAMICS OF FLUIDS

Pressure in a fluid, Pascal's law, law of Stevin theorem and Archimedes, atmospheric pressure and its measurement, blood pressure and its measurement.

Surface tension, Laplace formula and its applications: capillarity and the law of Jurin, air embolism.

Flow of a conduit; Bernoulli's theorem and its applications, with particular attention to the bloodstream.

Real fluids and laminar flow, viscosity and Poiseuille's law, and turbulent Reynolds number.

ELECTRICITY, MAGNETISM AND ELECTRIC CURRENT

Electric charge and Coulomb's law, electric field and electrostatic potential, electrocardiogram and potential of biological membranes (notes).

Current, and Ohm's law, electromotive force.

Thermal effect of the current; current passage in the bodies.

Alternating voltage and current.

WAVES, ACOUSTIC RADIATION

Elastic waves and wave propagation, standing waves and resonance.

Distinctive characteristics of the sounds, intensity and loudness.

Doppler, ultrasound and their applications in biomedical and veterinary use.

Electromagnetic waves.

X-ray production and properties, interactions with matter.

Notes on X-ray computed tomography (CT) and radio frequency (NMR).

Alpha, beta, gamma: properties and effects; natural radioactivity; of radiation protection. Dosimetry

Laser radiation.

OPTICS AND SPECTROSCOPY

Reflection and refraction and total internal reflection and fiber optics.

Geometrical optics. Diopter spherical.

Compound microscope; resolving power of an optical instrument; aberrations.

Optical microscopes and electronic microscopes.

## Recommended readings

D. Scannicchio: FISICA BIOMEDICA. EdiSES. 2009. Teacher’s didactical notes.

## Teaching methods

Oral lesson in classroom

## Assessment methods and criteria

written examination with the purpose of ascertaining whether the student knows and understands basic elements of Physics prerequisite to other disciplines such as chemistry, biochemistry, physiology, biomechanics, etc, and knows and understands the theoretical fundamentals of basic research and in diagnostic practice as electrophoresis, centrifugation, nuclear magnetic resonance, ultrasound, optical fibers for endoscopic microscopy, laser, X-ray equipment.

## Other informations

no one