GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The student must to demonstrate the knowledge of the fundamental principles of general and inorganic chemistry with particular attention to some basic concepts of chemistry that are preparatory for the second part of the course related to Organic Chemistry.
Course contents summary
Measuring systems for matter and energy. Introduction to the scientific method. Classification of matter. Elements for substances and mixtures. Laws of conservation of mass (Lavoisier, Proust).
Structure of the atom (proton neutron and electron) atomic number, atomic mass. Elements and Isotopes. Orbital and rules of distribution of the electrons. Periodic Table and correlation with the electron configuration. Periodic properties (ionization energy, atomic radius, electron affinity). Metals and non-metals.
Chemical bond. Ionic and covalent bonds. Number of oxidation. Valence bond and octet rule. Lewis structures. Formulas of resonance and formal charge. Polar molecular bonds. Orbital hybridization. Nomenclature of cations, anions and inorganic compounds.
Chemical reaction. Formula weight, molecular weight, concept of mole/molar ratio. Stoichiometry. Balancing of different types of chemical reactions. Ox-redox reactions.
Introduction to thermodynamics. First and second law of thermodynamics. Heat of reaction. Exothermic and endothermic reactions.
Chemical equilibrium. Equilibrium constant K, Le Chatelier's law. Factors affecting the chemical equilibrium.
States of matter. Gaseous state: the laws of Boyle, Charles and Gay-Lussac, the ideal gas equation of state. Liquid: vapor pressure, surface tension, boiling point, intermolecular forces. Solid state: definition of crystalline state. Phase changes and phase diagram of water.
Solutions. Solvent and solute solubility. Colloidal solutions, emulsions. Methods for the concentration (molarity, molality, percent). Henry's Law. Colligative properties (cryoscopic lowering, raising ebullioscopic, osmotic pressure).
Acids and Bases. Term acid and base according to Arrhenius and Brønsted classification. Acid and base conjugates. Ionic product of water, pH, calculation of Ka and Kb and their use in determining the strength of an acid or base. Acids and bases, strong acids and bases. Examples of hydrolysis of some salts, buffer solutions, pH of a buffer. physiological pH.
Kinetics. Reaction rate, the effect of concentration and temperature, catalysts (homogeneous, heterogeneous, enzyme).
Chimica e Propedeutica Biochimica
Authors: Battleheim, Brown, Campbell, Farrell
Author: Stevens S. Zumdhal
The teaching is constituted by lectures supported by powerpoint slides.
Assessment methods and criteria
To verify the achievement of the educational purposes of the course of General and Inorganic Chemistry a written test, including theoretical questions and exercises is carried out.