PRINCIPLES OF INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Knowledge: The main objective of the course is to provide students with the general criteria useful for an industrial chemical process planning and with the fundamental concepts that must be taken into account in designing a plant. To this aim, some industrial chemical processes are described and analyzed in terms of thermodynamic and kinetic aspects and are also highlighted the most important technology. Problems associated with the cost, sustainability and safety of an industrial process are also discussed.
Applying knowledge and understanding: students will acquire the ability to analyze thermodynamically and kinetically an industrial process, highlighting the most important aspects and technological solutions. They will also acquire concepts related to environmental and economic sustainability of a process.
Course contents summary
Elements of thermodynamics and kinetics: finding the right operating conditions (pressure, temperature, contact time) in conducting a chemical reaction in some examples of industrial processes. Concepts of yield, conversion and selectivity. Parallel and consecutive reactions. Mass and energy balances applied to chemical industry. Examples of recycling, by-pass and purge. Selection and design of a reactor in continuous or discontinuous operation mode. Multiphase reactions. Use of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts in industrial field (examples from petroleum industry). From laboratory to industry: problems associated with the scale-up. Importance of availability of raw materials, sustainability and safety of a chemical plant. Considerations on the overall costs (fixed and variable) of a process (raw materials, production, separation, purification products, use and/or disposal of by-products, equipment depreciation, personnel costs, etc..).
The aspects described so far will be illustrated with industrial processes listed below:
-Liquefaction of gases. Separation of air gases.
-Hydrogen and syngas.
-Nitrogen and nitrogen compounds: ammonia, hydrazine, nitric acid.
-Sulfur and sulfur compounds: sulfuric acid. Claus process.
-Chloro-alkali industry: chlorine and sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium carbonate.
1) "Chimica Inorganica Industriale" Carlo Botteghi (Piccin)
2) "An Introduction to Industrial Chemistry" C. A. Heaton
3) "Organic Chemistry: Principles and Industrial Practice" Mark M. Green, Harold A. Wittcoff
4) "Principi della Chimica Industriale" Vol. I e II G. Natta, L. Pasquon
Assessment methods and criteria
Written and oral Examination