Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course will provide basic information needed to understand
causes and mechanisms underlying the main pathologic processes at cell,
tissue and organismic levels. Notions will be applied to biotechnological approaches to relevant human
availability of bibliographic resources will be used to develop capability of
making judgements, communication and learning skills.
Bases of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry are required.
Course contents summary
- Cell injury and death, cell and tissue adaptation -- Tissue response to cell injury: Inflammation, Hemostasis, Tissue Repair
- Genetic disease
- Examples of metabolic disease
1) Cell injury and death, cell and tissue adaptation:
- Cell injury: oxidative and ER stress, intracellular and extracellular accumulations
- Ischemic/hypoxic stress
- Cell death: necrosis and apoptosis
- Adaptations: atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia
2) Tissue response to cell injury:
- Acute inflammation: events, cells, mediators
- Chronic inflammation, granuloma and fibrosis
- Derangements of the inflammatory response
- Systemic effects of inflammation
piastrinic phase, plasmatic phase
- Hemorrhagic diseases and DIC
- T hr o m b o sis
- E m b o l ia
- Tissue repair and its alterations
3) Genetic disease: - Mutations and their phenotypic effects
- Mendelian disorders
- Non-mendelian disorders
- Chromosomal aberrations
- Nomenclature and classification
- Benign and malignant tumors
- Molecular oncology: the molecular control of the cell cycle and death, protooncogenes and oncosuppressors, the genetic control of DNA repair
- Causes of tumours: chemical, physical, biological
- The neoplastic phenotype: invasivity, metastasis, angiogenesis, metabolic alterations
5) Examples of metabolic disease:
- Diabetes mellitus
- Protein and amino acid disorders
- Kumar, Abbas, Fausto, Aster- Robbins e Cotran – Le basi patologiche
delle malattie, 8 ed. Elsevier-Masson
- Parola Patologia Generale
Specific bibliographic references will be provided during the lessons
Oral interactive lessons, supported by iconographic material that will be
made availble to the students. Lessons will present the main conceptual
frame of each subject, summoning questions or doubts from the
audience and indicating bibliographic references for in-depth study of the
Assessment methods and criteria
No interim evaluation is programmed.
The final evaluation will consist in an oral examination.
Q u e s t i o n s / s t u d e n t : 2 ( f r o m t w o d i f f e r e n t e x a m i n e r s , o n e
q u e s t i o n / e x a m i n e r; one question will be on a subject chosen by the student).
Questions will concern subjects listed in the detailed program.
Failure to answer to one question, or verified uncapability to define
correctly the subject, will prevent the successful completion of the exam.
After each question, the examiner will give an evalaution expressed in
m a r k s :
A. Very good knowledge and understanding. Very good capability of
applying knowledge to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 30/30.
B. Good knowledge and understanding. Good capability to apply
knowledge to biomedical problems. Corresponding to 27-29/30.
C. Average knowledge and understanding. Average capability of
applying knowledge to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 24-26/30.
D. Sufficient knowledge and understanding. Sufficient capability of
applying information to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 21-
2 3 / 3 0 .
E. Barely sufficient knowledge and understanding (with evident pitfalls).
Scarce capability of applying knowledge to bio-medical problems.
Corresponding to 18-20/30.
Full marks with laude will be reserved to students exhibiting, together an
overal evaluation of 30/30, capability of making judgments and good
communication ability and autonomous learning skills.
The final vote will be decided jointly by the examiners, who will have the
possibility to decide a vote not higher or lower than three grades from
the best or the worst vote derived from the mean of the two individual