PHYSICS LABORATORY (UNIT 1)
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The goal of this course is a deep knowledge of the devices most used from an experimental researcher. A great attention will be devoted to the improvement of the practical ability, so that the students become able to plan and manage easy experiments.
Theoretical and practical knowledge from the 1th level Degree.
Course contents summary
How to plan an experiment. Instrumentation: excitation sources (especially light sources and electron beam), detection systems (photomultiplier, photodiodes, gas detector, scintillation detector, CCD, …), accessories (monochromator, filters, lock-in …). The noise spectrum, ho to improve the signal/noise ratio, filtration. Spectroscopic techniques.
Practices in laboratory:
- Emission spectroscopy (monochromator calibration, setup calibration, spectra from different light sources, emission map of a LED …)
- Time-resolved luminescence (light sources, oscilloscopes and PC interface, photomultiplier, photodiodes)
- Resistivity and carrier density in semiconductor and semi-insulant materials (van der Pauw method, Hall effect, measure of very hogh resistivities)
- Photomultiplier (noise analysis as a function of bias, detection of light source and improvement of the S/N ratio)
- Scintillation assembly (read-out electronic, noise spectrum, signal from radioactive sources and decay statistics)
List of experiences:
- Emission and absorption spectroscopy (calibration of monochromators, spectra of different sources, emission map of a LED);
-resistivity and carrier density: van der Pauw's method, Hall effect, high resistivity measurements
-characterization of a PV cell
-Photomultipliers and solid-state detectors (noise, optimization of signal/noise ratio)
- X and gamma rays detection
Lecture notes. Review papers.
A few classes at the beginning to show and discuss the main topics concerning the achievement of an experiment, and to introduce the features and the issues of the most used experimental devices. A wide, but surely not exhaustive, review of the main spectroscopic techniques will be offered.
Assessment methods and criteria
The examination consists of a practical proof in which the student plans and manages a simple experiment. At the end, a brief discussion with the teacher about the experimental results.
Students could repeat the experiences on demand. Customized timetable for working students.