GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The aim of the course is to give the fundamental chemical concepts required to face the study of Chemistry. Particular emphasis is given to three aspects of the modern chemistry, the structural, energetic and kinetic ones, involved in all chemical problems. The theoretical treatment of the fundamental concepts is followed by examples . Care is given to teach formal correctness of language, and to highlight connections among different parts of the program.
Course contents summary
1 The foundations of the atomic and molecular theory
Aggregation states of the matter. Names and symbols of the elements. Chemical equations. Atomic and molecular weights. Scale of the atomic weights. Mole and avogadro's number. Absolute atomic and molecular weights.
2 Structure of the atoms.
Principles of the quantum mechanics. The hydrogen atom. Polyelectron atoms. Electronic configuration of the atoms. Periodic properties of the elements.
3 Chemical bond
Ionic bond. Properties of the ionic compounds. Covalent bond. The lewis octet rule. Vsepr theory. Theory of the valence bond (vb) and theory of the molecular orbitals (mo). Hybrid orbitals. Description by the vb method of the bonds in simple molecoles and polyatomic ions, both inorganic and organic. Metallic bond. Van der Waals bonds. Hydrogen bond.
4 Nomenclature of the compounds
Chemical reactions. Oxidation numbers. Classification and nomenclature of the inorganic compounds. Chemical reactions: salification, exchange and oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions.
5 States of aggregation of the matter
Gaseous state: properties of the gases, ideal and nonideal gases. Liquefation of the gases. Liquid state. Solid state: properties of the solids. Crystal lattices and unit cells. Types of crystalline solids: metallic, ionic, covalent and molecolar. Defects in the crystals. Allotropy, polymorfism and isomorfism.
General properties of the solutions. Different ways to indicate the concentrations of the solutes. Raoult's law. Colligative properties. Osmotic pression. Dissociaton ans association of the solutes.
7 Chemical thermodinamics
Definition of system, heat and work. Internal energy and enthalpy. Laws of the thermochemistry. Thelaws of thermodinamics. Entropy.Gibbs free energy. Equilibrium.
8 Chemical equilibrium
Equilibrium inhomogeneous systems. Equilibrium constant and its dependance on the temperature. Heterogeneous equilibria. Rule of the phases. Systems of one component. Binary systems formed by liquidis miscible in every ratio or quite immiscible. Solid-liqquid binary systems.
9 Ionic equilibria
Solubility-product. The nature of the acids and of the bases. Ionization of the water .pH and its determination. Dissociation of the acids and of the bases either strong and weak in diluted aqueous solutions. Hydrolitic equilibria.pH indicators. Acid-basis titration curves. Buffer solutions. Amphoteric substances.
10 Chemical kinetics
Reaction rates and features influencing them. Reaction order. Influence of the temperature on the reaction rate. Catalysis. Reaction mechanisms.
11 Electrolytic and galvanic cells
Electrolytic cells. Galvanic cells. Standard reduction potentials. Reference electrodes. Calculation of the f.e.m. of a cell.
12 Inorganic chemistry
General properties of the groups. General properties of the most important elements of the main and transition groups and of their most important compounds. Processes of industrial relevance.
One of the following:
P. ATKINS e L. JONES, Principi di Chimica, Casa Editrice Zanichelli
FUSI, BACCHI, GIORGI, MARCHETTI, MESSORI, PAOLI, PUNZO, SORTINO, TOLAZZI - Chimica generale e Inorganica, Casa Editrice Idelson-Gnocchi, 2011
A.M. MANOTTI LANFREDI e A. TIRIPICCHIO, Fondamenti di Chimica, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
P. Zanello-R.Gobetto-R.Zanoni, Conoscere la chimica, CEA, 2009
ATKINS, JONES - Chimica Generale - Zanichelli
R.H. PETRUCCI e W.S. HARWOOD, Chimica Generale, Casa Editrice Piccin
KOTZ e TREICHEL- Chimica - EdiSES
KW Whitten, RE Davis, ML Peck, GG Stanley - Chimica Generale - Piccin, 2004
R Chang, Fondamenti di Chimica generale, McGraw-Hill, 2009
J. Burdge, CHIMICA, Casa editrice Ambrosiana, 2010
BROWN, LEMAY, BURSTEN, MURPHY, WOODWARD, Fondamenti di Chimica, EdiSES, 2011
Assessment methods and criteria
written and oral exam
joint with the course of Laboratory