GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The objective of the course is to provide the first year students with the basic concepts of chemistry
Course contents summary
Chemical instruments. Atoms and elements. Compounds and molecules. Chemical reactions: an introduction. Reactions in water solutions. Thermochemistry. Atomic and molecular structure. Structure of the atom. Electronic configuration of atoms and periodic properties. Basic concepts on the chemical bond and on the molecular structure. – Further concepts on the chemical bond: orbital hybridization, molecular orbital theory and metallic bond. The states of aggregation: gases and their behaviour. Intermolecular forces: liquids and solids. Solutions and their behaviour. The control of chemical reactions: thermodynamic and kinetic aspects. The principles of thermodynamics and their implications in a chemical context. Spontaneity of the chemical reactions. Enthropy and free energy. Chemical equilibrium. The chemistry of acids and bases. Buffer systems. Precipitation reactions. Thermodynamics of redox reactions. Electrochemistry. Kinetics: rate and mechanisms of chemical reactions – Chemistry of the elements and of their compounds: the s and p blocks and the transition elements of biological relevance.
Stoichiometry. Equivalent weight. Chemical reactions. Normality. Redox reactions. Principles of volumetric analysis. Balance in pH solutions. Buffer solutions.
Laboratory activities: determination of the absolute zero through measures of volume variations with temperature. Determination of the titre of a solution. Titrationof an acid with a strong base – Oxidimetric titration - pHmetry.
Atoms and elements - Compounds and molecules - Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds - Chemical reactions: an overview - Reactions in aqueous solution
Atomic and molecular structure
The structure of the atom - Electronic configuration of atoms and periodicity - Basics on molecular structure and chemical bonding: Lewis and VSEPR theory, VB theory (hybridization) and MO theory (application with homo- and heteronuclear diatomic molecules)
States of matter - Gases and their behaviour - Intermolecular forces - Thermodynamics: the principles of thermodynamics and their implications in chemistry - Thermochemistry - The spontaneity of chemical reactions: entropy and Gibbs free energy - Equilibrium: general concepts - The chemistry of weak acids and bases - Buffer solutions - Solubility
Reaction rate - kinetic equations - Reaction order - Arrhenius equation - Activated complex theory - Mechanisms in Chemical Reactions -
Stoicheiometry. Balancing chemical reactions. Limiting reagent. Principles of volumetric analysis. Equilibria in solution. Calculation of pH in solutions of weak acids and bases. Buffer solutions. Calculations of solubility.
Brian B Laird Chimica Generale
Raymond Chang FONDAMENTI DI CHIMICA GENERALE McGraw Hill, Milano
The course will be made up of lectures, supplemented by material accessible online on the Biotechnology site (biotecnologie.unipr.it). There will be impromptu tests during the year to check student level of comprehension.
The exam will be written and consist of a series of questions which will retrace, in order, the course syllabus: atomic and molecular theories (nomenclature and stoichimetry), chemical bonds (molecular forms), thermodynamics (thermochemistry and balance in solutions) and kinetics (reaction mechanisms).
Assessment methods and criteria