ORGANIC AND BIO-ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
To acquire knowledge and ability to understand matters of Organic Chemistry in advanced books. Ability to apply knowledge of Organic Chemistry with a professional approach, to design, to discuss and solve problems in the field of Organic Chemistry; to acquire maturity and the necessary skills to undertake studies of higher grade with a good degree of autonomy.
Knowledge of the structure and reactivity of organic molecules, with
particular attention to the biological substances. To acquire knowledge on
classification and nomenclature of the organic compounds by the identification of
their functional groups and , through these, on their reactivity. To learn the concepts
of isomerism, conformation and stereochemistry of organic molecules and of their
consequences in biological systems. To learn the principal concepts characterizing the reactivity of organic compounds in radicalic, electophilic and nucleophilic
reactions. To know the functional groups and properties of some important classes
of biological compounds, such as carbohydrates, triglycerides and amino acids.
To describe the biopolymers of fundamental importance in biological systems:
polisaccharides, peptides, nucleic acids, and their chemical features, their biological
role and fundamentals about chemical synthesis of these molecules.
To acquire experience on the principal laboratory techniques for the purification and
modification of organic compounds.
General and Inorganic Chemistry
Course contents summary
1-The covalent bond and the shape of molecules. Electronic structure-of atoms;
bonds and intermolecular forces; composition, structure and formula of the organic
molecules; structural isomers, resonance. Orbitals of the carbon atom in saturated
and unsaturated compounds.
2-Alkanes. Structure, nomenclature, conformations. Reactivity: formation and
stabilitiy of radicals in halogenation reactions.
3-Cycloalkanes. Ring strain, boat and chair conformations of cyclohexane and in
4-Stereochemistry. Conformational and configurational isomers; chirality, optical
activity, realitve and absolute configurations; classification and separation of
stereoisomers; role of chirality in biological systems and in teechnological
5-Alkenes. Cis/trans isomerism. Hydrogenation. Reactivity towards electrophiles.
Examples of polymerization. Dienes: classification. Conjugated dienes: chemical
and electronic properties.
4-Alkynes. Structure and nomenclature.
5-Aromatic compunds. Definition of aromaticità. Hückel’s rules. Schematic
description of aromatic electrophilic substitution.
6-Haloalkanes. Structure and reactivity. General scheme for the nomenclature of
functional groups. Substitution and elimination reactions, mono- and bimolecular.
7-Alcohols. Structure, nomenclature. Chemical properties: acidity, nucelophilicity.
Substitution and elimination reactions on alcohols . Structure and reactivity of
ethers, epoxides, thiols and thioethers. Examples of natural products containing
these functional groups.
8-Aldehydes and kentones . General structure; resonance formulae of the carbonyl
group. Reactions of addition of nucleophilic species (reversible and
irreversible).Oxidation and reduction. Keto-enol tautomerism. Alpha hydrogen
9- Introdiction to the chemistry of carbohydrates. Calssification of carbohydrates.
Monosaccharides and their properties. Glycosides. Mutarotation; disaccharides,
oligosaccharides and polysaccharides
10- Carboxylic acids and their derivatives. Structure and nomenclature.. Acidity of
carboxylic acids. Nucleophilic acyl substitution reaction. Order of reactivity.
Structure and reactivity of acyl chlorides, anhydrides, esters, amides. Structure of
triglycerides. Basic hydrolysis.
1-Amines and amino acids. acid-base properties and reactivity.
2-Peptides and proteins. Chemical structure, physical properties and reactivity.
Introduction to peptide synthesis. Protecting groups.
3-Nucleosides and nucleotides. Structure, physical properties and reactivity.
Introduction to DNA synthesis. Biological and biomedical use of nucleosides and
Tutorials: written exercises concerning fundamental concepts will be proposed, to
help the students to practise with notations and tools of Organic Chemistry
(structural formulae, resonance structures, conformation and stereochemical
aspects); through the discussion of cases of increasing diffculty. The discussion of
exercises will help to clarify, with examples, the topics exposed in the frontal
Introduction to the laboratori safety probelms; risks connected with the use of
chemicals and parameters describing hazards and risks.
1) Liquid-liquid exctraction of a compound using acid-base aquilibria . Melting point
determination. Qualitative anaysis using thin layer chromatography (TLC).
2)Puification of alcohols using distillation. Quantitative analysis of purity by
3)Synthesis of an ester and properties of carbohydrates.
The most common techniques for the separation and identification of organic
compounds will be illustrated.
h t t p : / / b i o t e c n o l o g i e . u n i p r . i t / c g i -
• • P.Y. Bruice “Chimica Organica-2 Edizione” EdiSES (2011).
• J. McMurry “Chimica Organica” 7 Edizione. Piccin (2008).
• W.H. Brown – C.S.Foote – B.L.Iverson E.V. Anslyn “Chimica Organica” IV Edizione EdiSES (2009)
• K. Peter, C. Vollhardt, N.E. Schore “Chimica Organica” 3 Edizione. Zanichelli (2005).
• B. Botta (a cura di) “Chimica Organica” Edi-Ermes (2011)
Copies of the lectures available at the course web site.
W.H. Brown, B. L. Iverson, S. A. Iverson: “Guida alla soluzione dei problemi di
Chimica Organica” Edi Ses.
R.M. Roberts, J.C. Gilbert, S.F. Martin : " Chimica Organica Sperimentale"
Zanichelli Editore .
Copies of the lectures available at the course web site.
Frontal lectures and practical laboratory experiences
Assessment methods and criteria
Written and oral examination + written laboratory workbook
Contains a part dedicated to Laboratory experiences