PHYSIOPATHOLOGY AND CELLULAR PATHOLOGY
ACADEMIC YEAR: 2013/2014
YEAR OF STUDY: 2
SEMESTER: First semester
NUMBER OF CREDITS: 6
CONTACT HOURS: 42
The course will provide advanced information needed to understand causes and mechanisms underlying main pathologic processes at cell, tissue and organismic levels. Notions will be applied to relevant human pathologies. The comprehension of the pathophysiological aspects will help to link ethiology and pathogenesis to structural/functional alterations and, hence, to diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. The availbility of bibliographic resources will be used to develop capability of making judgements, communication and learning skills.
Adequate bases of histology, anatomy, Biochemistry and Physiology are required.
- Cell injury ed adaptation
- Tissue responses: Inflammation, Hemostasis, Repair
- Immune responses and their alterations
- Cardiovascular pathophysiology
- Pathophysiology of metabolism and nutrition
1) Cell injury ed adaptation:
- oxidative stress, intracellular and extracellular accumulations.
- Ischemic-hypoxic stress
- Cell death: necrosis, apoptosis, other modalities
- Adaptations: atrophy, hyperplasia, hypertrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia
2) Tissue responses:
- Acute inflammation: the events, the cells, the mediators
- Chronic inflammation, granulomas, fibrosis
- Disorders of inflammation
- Systemic changes in inflammation
- Phases of the hemostatic response
- Hemorrhagic disease and DIC
- Tissue repair and its alterations
3) Immune responses and their alterations:
- The immune system: anatomy and cell biology
- The immune response
- Hypersensitivity and Autoimmunity
4) Cardiovascular pathophysiology: - Hypertension, Cardiac failure, Myocardial Infarction
5)Pathophysiology of metabolism and nutrition:
- Pathophysiology of the diabetic syndrome
- Nutrition disorders
- Kumar, Abbas, Fausto, Aster- Robbins e Cotran – Le basi patologiche delle malattie, 8 ed. Elsevier-Masson
References on specific subjects will be provided during lessons.
Oral interactive lessons, supported by iconographic material that will be made availble to the students. Lessons will present the main conceptual frame of each subject, summoning questions or doubts from the audience and indicating bibliographic references for in-depth study of the subject.
No interim evaluation is programmed.
The final evaluation will consist in an oral examination.
Questions/student: 2 (from two different examiners, one question/examiner)
Questions will concern subjects listed in the detailed program.
Failure to answer to one question, or verified uncapability to define correctly the subject, will prevent the successful completion of the exam.
After each question, the examiner will give an evalaution expressed in marks:
A. Very good knowledge and understanding. Very good capability of applying knowledge to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 30/30.
B. Good knowledge and understanding. Good capability to apply knowledge to biomedical problems. Corresponding to 27-29/30.
C. Average knowledge and understanding. Average capability of applying knowledge to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 24-26/30.
D. Sufficient knowledge and understanding. Sufficient capability of applying information to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 21-23/30.
E. Barely sufficient knowledge and understanding (with evident pitfalls). Scarce capability of applying knowledge to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 18-20/30.
Full marks with laude will be reserved to students exhibiting, together an overal evaluation of 30/30, capability of making judgments and good communication ability and autonomous learning skills.
The final vote will be decided jointly by the examiners, who will have the possibility to decide a vote not higher or lower than three grades from the best or the worst vote derived from the mean of the two individual votes.