Learning outcomes of the course unit
Basic knowledge of the mechanisms underlying cell injury and death, tissue response to injury (inflammation, haemostasis, repair), genetic diseases, tumors. Comprehension of the fundamentals of immune response and its alterations, with a peculiar emphasis on transfusion medicine and on subjects of particular relevance for nursing. Attainment of terminological competence.
Bases of biology, anatomy, biochemistry and physiology are required.
Course contents summary
Cellular Pathology: Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Hyperplasia, hypertrophy, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia. Necrosis and apoptosis.
Oncology: classification and nomenclature; Benignand and malignant tumors; Tumor etiology; Fundamentals in molecular oncology; invasivity and metastasis; pathogenesis of neoplastic diseases. Grading and staging.
The blood: composition, cells, general pathophysiology. Anemia and Thalassemia syndromes. Leukemia and lymphoma. Phases and event of the haemostatic response. Hemorrhagic disorders; thrombosis and embolism; infarction.
Inflammation: events of acute inflammation; the exudate; types of exudate; phagocytosis; chronic inflammation and granulomas; abscesses and ulcers; chemical mediators of inflammation; systemic effects of inflammation and fever; tissue repair.
Genetic disorders: mutations; monogenic diseases: examples of autosomic dominant, autosomic recessive and X-linked disorders; cytogenetic disorders.
Multifactorial disorders: atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus.
Innate and adaptive immunity: distinction and cooperation. Antigens and Antibodies. Ag-Ab interaction. Lymphocyte receptors. The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Functional anatomy of the immune response. Lymphocyte activation and effector functions. Primary and secondary reaction. Principles of vaccination. Immune response to infections. Hypersensitivity. Primary and secondary immunodeficencies. HIV infection.
Blood groups. AB0 system. Rh system. Other blood groups. Hemolytic disease of the newborn. Fundamentals of transfusional practice. Transfusional complications.
Maier & Mariotti “Elementi di Patologia Generale e Fisiopatologia”, Mc Grow Hill
Most of the subjects treated in the lessons are included in this textbook (except Immunohematology).
Other textbooks may be useful for specific subjects:
- Spector e Axford “Introduzione alla Patologia Generale”, CEA
- Abul K. Abbas & Andrew H. Lichtman "Le basi dell'immunologia" II ed. Masson
- Vera Del Gobbo "Immunologia per le lauree sanitarie" III ed., Piccin
Assessment methods and criteria