SPECIALIST MEDICINE II
1) Recall of anatomy and physiology of uro-genital apparatus. 2) Physical, laboratory and instrumental semeiotics of uro-genital apparatus. 3) Disorders of hydration: dehydration and hyperhydration. 4) Electrolyte imbalance: hyponatremia, hypernatremia, hypokalemia, hyperkalemia. 5) Acid-base disorders: metabolic and respiratory acidosis, metabolic and respiratory alcalosis. 6) Primary glomerular diseases and classification of secondary forms (diabetic nephropathy in detail). 7) Congenital tubular nephropathies (renal glycosuria). 8) Acquired tubulo-interstitial diseases (acute and chronic). 9) Nephroangiosclerosis. 10) Congenital renal anomalies (polycystic and multicystic nephropathy in detail). 11) Acute and chronic renal failure. 12) Dialytic procedures and renal transplantation. 13) Urinary obstruction (causes and consequences) 14) Urinary tract infection. 15) Urinary calculosis. 16) Main tumors of the kidney and uro-genital tract (kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis). 17) Neurologic bladder. 18) Urinary incontinence. 19) Main drugs of nephrologic interest: diuretics, steroids and immunosuppressants. Short notes on mechanisms of action, indications, untoward effects.