PHARMACOLOGY AND PHARMACO-TOXICOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims to allow the student to know and to understand the principles that govern the interactions of drugs with the body, the principles of general toxicology, the adverse reactions of drugs and their evaluation, the fundamental aspects associated with the therapeutic use of some drugs that are most frequently used and monitored.
Course contents summary
The first part of the course concerns principles that govern the interactions of drugs with the body, both in terms of pharmacokinetics (absorption, metabolism, distribution and elimination) and pharmacodynamics (mechanism of action). The second part includes basic concepts regarding general principles of toxicology, adverse drug reactions and how to evaluate them, potential interference with hematochemical dosages, bearing in mind the structure, the kinetics and the mechanism of action, as well as the relationship between pharmacological and toxicological effects. The third part includes knowledge of basic aspects connected with the therapeutic use of certain drugs of specific interest that are most frequently used and monitored.
Introduction to pharmacology, basic principles.
Pharmacokinetics: chemical-physical factors involved in the passage of drugs through membranes.
Methods of administering drugs and pharmaceutical forms.
Pharmacodynamics and drug receptors. Fundamentals of Pharmacodynamics
Signal transduction mechanisms and drug action.
Relation between drug concentration and response.
Relation between drug dosage and clinical response; factors causing variability in drug response.
Toxicology: fundamentals, dosage-response relationship, classification of undesirable effects.
Therapeutic monitoring of drugs. Interpretation of plasmatic concentration measurements. Methods of drug analysis. Anomalous results in chemical-clinical analysis: influence of biological variability and drug treatment.
Monitoring and toxicology: anti-asthmatic drugs, cardioactive drugs, antibiotics, antiepileptic drugs, chemotherapeutics and immunosuppressants, analgesic drugs, psychotropic drugs.
Monitoring and toxicology: drug abuse. Toxicological analysis.
Monitoring and toxicology: poisoning.
Rang H.P., Dale M.M., Ritter J.M., Flower R.J., Henderson G., FARMACOLOGIA. Milano: Elsevier, 2012. VII Italian edition
Class lessons: the program themes will be discussed with the aid of slides. The proposed topics will be the subject of collective discussion and study on the basis of ideas and any questions raised during the lessons themselves
Assessment methods and criteria
The final evaluation will be carried out through an oral examination. Questions/student: at least three questions on three different topics listed in the extended program. At the end of the verification, the examiner will formulate a judgment expressed in examination grades:
30/30. Excellent knowledge and understanding. Excellent capability to apply knowledge to problems of specific interest for the biomedical laboratory technicians.
27-29/30. Very good knowledge and understanding of the subjects. Very good ability to apply knowledge to problems of specific interest for the biomedical laboratory technicians.
24-26/30. Good knowledge and understanding of the subjects. Good ability to apply the knowledge to problems of specific interest for the biomedical laboratory technicians.
21-23/30. Sufficient knowledge and understanding of the subjects. Sufficient ability to apply the knowledge to problems of specific interest for the biomedical laboratory technicians.
18-20/30. Lack of knowledge and understanding of the subjects. Lack of ability to apply knowledge to problems of specific interest for the biomedical laboratory technicians.
30/30 cum laude will be reserved for the student who has achieved an evaluation of 30/30, taking into account his autonomy in making judgments, the communication skills and the learning skills.