GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The goal of the course is to provide a solid knowledge of the fundamental principles of chemistry, and to develope in the students critical abilities through the solution of exercises.
Course contents summary
Elementary substances and chemical compounds. Periodic Table. Chemical symbols of the elements. Chemical phenomena and physical phenomena. Chemically homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. The concept of phase. The mixtures. Dalton's atomic theory. The atom as the fundamental unit of matter, through which chemical transformations occur. Lavoisier's law. The definition of mass and weight. The principle of Avogadro. Mass and atomic weight. The scale of atomic weights. Molecular Weight. Canizzaro's rule. Chemical formulas: quality and quantity information. Atomic mass units. Chemical symbols and formulas. Fundamental subatomic particles: proton, neutron and electron. Atomic number and mass number.
Definition and application of oxidation number. The oxidation numbers of the elements. Nomenclature of inorganic compounds: oxides and hydroxides. Preparation of hydroxides. The peroxides, basic oxides and anhydrides. IUPAC, Stock and traditional nomenclature for oxides, hydroxides and anhydrides. Acids: hydracids (IUPAC and traditional) and oxoacids (traditional nomenclature). The salts and the reactions of salification: reactions of simple exchange and double exchange. Exercises on the reactions for the preparation of salts and nomenclature of inorganic compounds. Rules for balancing Redox and not Redox Reactions. Exercises on Moles. Acidic and basic substances. Molecular and ionic Equations.
Structure: electrical nature of matter, particle nature of electricity. Atomic model of Thomson and Rutherford. Isotopes and isobars. Elettromegnetica radiation. Quantum and Planck theory. Bohr's atom. Dualism of wave - particle (De Broglie). Uncertainty principle of Heisenberg. Wave mechanics. Schroedinger equation. Atomic orbitals and quantum numbers. Polyelectronic atoms. Aufbau: Hund's Rule and the Pauli exclusion principle. Periodic Table. Periodic properties: first ionization energy, electron affinity and electronegativity. Metals and non-metals.
Exercises: the ground state electron configurations of the atoms of the elements. Balancing redox reactions written in ionic form.
The chemical bond. Ionic and covalent bonding. Lewis theory. Octet rule. Expansion of the sphere of value. Polar and non-polar covalent bond. Dative covalent bond. Calculation of the percentage of ionic character of a bond. Molecular geometry. VB theory or valence bond. Hybridization (e.g. carbon: sp3, sp2, sp). Weak Bonds. Van der Waals forces: dipole-dipole forces, dipole forces - induced dipole, dipole forces instant - instant dipole. Hydrogen bond. Paramagnetic and diamagnetic molecules.
States of matter. Gaseous state. Equation of state of an ideal gas. Ideal gas laws: Boyle's law, Gay-Lussac I °, II ° Gay-Lussac, the Law of Dalton on mixtures of gases; molar heats of gases. Real gases. Liquid state: properties. Surface tension, evaporation, vapor pressure, boiling point. Changes of state. The solutions: dilute and concentrated. Ways to express the composition of a solution. Dissolution of a solid ion in water. Solubility. Factors affecting solubility. Exercises on the concentrations of the solutions.
Ideal solutions. Raoult's law. Colligative properties of solutions. Strong electrolytes and weak electrolytes. Osmotic pressure. Colligative properties of electrolyte solutions. Solid state: crystalline solids and amorphous solids. Polymorphism and isomorphism. Comparison between diamond and graphite. Types of chemical transformations. State functions. First law of thermodynamic. Enthalpy. Degradation of energy and the concept of disorder. Entropy and the second law of thermodynamic. Gibbs free energy and spontaneity of chemical processes. Chemical equilibrium: the equilibrium constant. Mobile principle of balance. Effect of change of temperature on the equilibrium constant. Factors affecting the position of equilibrium. Relationship between free energy and equilibrium constant. Heterogeneous equilibria and solubility equilibria. Acids and bases: Arrhenius theory
Franco Ugozzoli, LEZIONI DI CHIMICA, Edizioni Santa Croce.
Assessment methods and criteria
Oral with written exercises