Learning outcomes of the course unit
The students have to acquire in-depth knowledge on the main aspects of etiology pathogenesis of diseases, particularly focusing on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of tissue and cell damage and adaptation and cell death; the students have to know the cellular and molecular , mechanism which regulate the inflammatory and innate responses and tissue renewal and repair. They have to learn etiology, pathogenesis and physiopathology of the neoplastic diseases.
The students have to acquire on physiopathological at mean organs and apparatus. Concepts and mechanisms of immune-mediated pathologies in animals were also treated.
Propedeutics to: Pathological Anatomy – Internal Medicine – Pathologoicaol Surgery and Radiology – Infectious Diseases – Ostetrics
Propedeutics done: Microbiology and Iiia e Immunologia - Epidemiologia, Fisiologia II - Endocrinologia
Course contents summary
The etiology and pathogenesis of diseases, cellular and molecular mechanisms of tissue and cell damage and adaptation and cell death. Cellular and molecular aspects of inflammatory and innate responses; tissue renewal and repair. Etiology, pathogenesis and physiopathology of the neoplastic diseases (General Pathology). The main physiopathological aspects of organs and apparatus (Physiopathology). Immune-mediated pathologies in animals (Immunopathology).
CONTENTS OF THEORETICAL LESSONS
Homeostasis, health and disease : basic concepts of causes and pathogenesis of the diseases
Etiology (causes of cell and tissue pathology): Infectious agents (the main mechanisms of injury by virus e bacteria); Chemical agents (the main mechanisms of chemical injury; Physical agents (radiation injury, thermal injuries, mechanical forces); Nutritional deficiencies; Basics on genetic defects.
Cell, tissue and systemic adaptive response:
- Molecular aspects of cell adaptation (heat shock proteins, anti-oxidants, response to DNA damage, functional adaptive response;
- Tissue adaptation: hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy, metaplasia;
- The stress adaptive response
Reversible and irreversible cell injury:The models of cell damage by hypoxia and free radicals
The cell death
- Necrosis: biochemical and morphologic aspects, types of necrosis;
- Apoptosis: causes (physiologic and pathologic apoptosis), morphologic and biochemical features and mechanisms.
Acute and chronic inflammation:
- General features: etiology, classification and development; Vascular and cellular events of acute inflammation; Inflammatory cells; chemical mediators of inflammation Outcomes of acute inflammation; Cellular events and regulation;
- Primary chronic inflammation and granulomatous inflammation (causes and pathogenetic mechanisms);
- Acute Phase Reactions.
- The fever
Tissue renewal and repair: regeneration; repair by healing; bone fracture repair and cutaneous wound healing; factors influencing wound healing.
- Definition, general features and nomenclature;
Molecular basis of cancer: oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, apoptosis genes;
Biology of the neoplastic cell ( transformation and progression, heterogeneity);
- Etiology and epidemiology: chemical, radiation and microbial carcinogenesis; Differential aspects between benign and malignant neoplasms and classification;
- Invasion and metastasis; immune response against neoplastic cells; paraneoplastic syndromes; diagnostic and prognostic markers of malignant neoplasms.
Hypersensitivity: etiology, pathogenesis and examples of immune-mediated diseases ( Type I, Type II, Type III and Type IV hypersensitivity).
Autoimmunity : mechanisms of immunologic tolerance, general concepts and pathogenetic mechanisms, mechanisms of immune-mediated damage, examples of autoimmune diseases.
Immunosuppression: hereditary and acquired immunodeficiency
Nutrition and immunity
Infection and immunity : damage by virus and bacteria, endotoxic and septic shock, the innate and adaptive immune response to virus and bacteria
Physiopathology of bone and joints:
- Calcium/phosphorus imbalances;
- Metabolic bone diseases (rickets, osteoporosis, osteomalacia, fibrous osteodistrophy Calcium/Phosphorus balance’s disorders.
- Degenerative and dyschondroplastic joint diseases in animals
Physiopathology of kidney: acute and chronic failure, nephrotic and uremic syndromes
Physiopathology of blood: leukocytosis, leukopenia, anaemia, polycvthemia, hemorrhagic disorders.
Physiopathology of water and acido-base imbalances: dehydration, acidosis and alkalosis.
Hemodynamic disorders. edema, hyperaemia, haemostasis and thrombosis, embolism, infarction, shock.
Hepatic physiopathology: jaundice, steatosis, liver failure
Basics of lung and cardiac physiopathology the respiratory failure, edema, emphysema, the hearth failure.
CONTENTS OF PRACTICE ACTIVITY.
1)LABORATORY ACTIVITY (histopathology lab): observation of microscopic features of:
- Cellular degenerations: cloudy swelling, hydropic and vacuolar degeneration, steatosis,
intracellular protein accumulation disorders, fibrinoid necrosis, sclerosis;
- Types of acute and chronic inflammationS
2) LABORATORY OF IMMUNOPATHOLOGY: application of parameters and techniques to evaluate the efficiency of immune response.
3) CLASSROOM PRACTICE on solving problems
PREPARATORY BOOKS FOR EXAMINATION:
1) V Kumar, A. Abbas, N. Fausto: “Robbins e Cotran: Le basi patologiche delle malattie. vol. 1 Patologia Generale” (2010), Elsevier Italia, Srl, Milano.
2) McGavin M.D., Zachary J.F. Patologia generale veterinaria. (2008). Elsevier Masson, Milano.
3) M.A. Russo, L. Frati, G.M. Pontieri. Patologia Generale vol. I e II (2009) Piccin, Padova. Piccin, Padova.
4) M.U. Dianzani- I. Dianzani- U. Dianzani Istituzioni di patologia generale IV ed. (2006) UTET, Torino
1) Tizard I.R. Veterinary Immunology. Saunders (USA)(2011).
2) Dunlop R.H. Malbert C.H. Veterinary Pathophysiology. (2004) Blackwell Publishing, Ames, USA. 3) Marcato P.S. Patologia Sistematica Veterinaria (2002). Edagricole, Bologna.
4) G.B. Pier, J.B. Lyczak, L.M. Wetzler. Immunologia, infezione, immunità (2006). Piccin, Padova.
5) Marcato P.S. Anatomia e istologia patologica generale veterinaria. (2000) Eusculapio, Bologna
The LESSONS are AVAILABLE ON LINE
Theoretical lessons with slide presentation (72 hours).
Practical acitivity (20 hours) in Immunopathology and Histopathology Labs and Class room practice with solving problems.
Assessment methods and criteria
The student may choice between:
1) Written examination
15 multichoice questions with a open explanations and a brief oral question for
The final evaluation was determined considering a maximum of 2 points each response.
2) Oral examination: 3 questions on theoretical contents and 1 question on practicals contents
Oral examination was globally evaluated by all the responses on both theoretical and practical questions.
A mid-term (“in itinere”) written examination can be performed on the contents of general pathology, oncology and immune-pathology before the end of the lessons and the first official exam’s session.
Then, the students must complete the examination on the contents of physiopathology at the official session within the examination’s session of September.
Self-evaluation tests simulating a written examination will be carried around the end of the course.
The teacher is at students disposal for furthjer explanations on the contents, during the course and for exam's preparation, from monday to friday upon contact by e-mail.