GENERAL PATHOLOGY, PHARMACOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY
PATHOLOGY: Cell injury and death: reversible and irreversible injury, intrinsic and extrinsic causes of cell injury, adaptations, types of cell death.
Basic oncology: classification and nomenclature, epidemiological features, benign and malignant tumors, invasivity and metastasis, host-tumor relationships, grading and staging.
Tissue responses to cell injury:
- Inflammation: classification, events and mechanisms, acute and chronic inflammation, cells, mediators, systemic events, inflammatory lesions, derangements on inflammation.
- Hemostasis: phases, defects, thrombosis, embolia, atherosclerosis, infarction.
- Tissue repair. Mechanisms of repair and their alterations.
The prokaryotic cell: general organization, morphology and physiology. Reproduction of microorganisms. The microorganism/host relationship: commensalism, symbiosis, parasitism. Microbial flora. Pathogenicity and virulence.
General characteristics of viruses, Structural and chemical composition of virions,
Phases of the viral replication process.
Transmission of pathogens. Diagnosis of infectious disease.
Basic information on infections of skin, CNS, osteoarticular system.
What is pharmacology. Drugs.
Basic pharmacodynamics: sites and mechanisms of action, agonists and antagonists, partial agonists, the dose-effect relationship. Basic pharmacokinetics:
how drugs reach their site of action, routes of administration, drug adsorption. Drug-protein binding and drug biodistribution.
Drug biotransformation.Drug excretion. Pharmacokinetic parameters: bioavailability, apparent distribution volume, plasma drug half-life, clearance. Conditions modifying drug effects: drug interactions, the importance of patient conditions. Tolerance and resistance. Drug toxicity: collateral and unwanted events.
Neuromuscular drugs: depolarizing and competitive blocking agents, botulinum, central (GABAergic) and preripheral myorelaxing agents.
Drugs for myasthenia gravis: anticholinesterase drugs, steroids, immunosuppressant drugs.
Analgesic drugs: opiates and non-opiate analgesics; local anesthetics.
Antiinflammatory drugs: NSAIDs, non-selective COX inhibitors; COX-2 preferential and COX2-selective NSAIDs; steroids (glucocorticoids). Antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), antigout drugs (colchicine, allopurinol, uricosuric agents).
Drugs for Arthrosis: condroprotective drugs.