Learning outcomes of the course unit
Acquisition of the knowledge on the mechanisms at the basis of cellular and tissue homeostasis, on transport and communication mechanisms and on resting metabolic rate.
Acquisition of the knowledge on the functions of the different organs and apparata, their dynamis integration and the general mechanisms of corntrol of their functions in rest conditions and during physical activity.
To know the main functional parameters in healthy individuals
To know the main mechanisms od the sensory and motor functions of the central nervous system and of sensorimotor transformation processings.
To know the mechanisms at the basis of the muscle contraction and of the muscle performance
Course contents summary
General physiology; Physiology of organs and apparata; Muscle physiology; Neurophysiology
The cell membrane
Cell membrane structure; membrane proteins; transport mechanisms across membranes.
Electrical properties of membranes
Electrochemical gradients; passive and active ion channels; resting membrane potential; passive electrical properties of the membrane; action potential, genesis and conduction; classification of nerve fibers.
Electrical and chemical synapses; neuromuscular transmission; synapses in the central nervous system, neurotransmitters; receptors.
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
Autonomic nervous system; vegetative reflexes
HEART AND BLOOD CIRCULATION
Physical principles of hemodynamics; blood physical properties; properties of the heart muscle: autogeneration of action potentials, conduction of action potentials, excitability, contraction; electrophysiology of the heart muscle; mechanical events of the cardiac cycle; cardiac output; regulation of heart functions; circulation system; vasomotor regulation; arterial blood pressure; venous blood pressure and venous blood return
Physical properties of gases; functional anatomy of the lungs; lung volumes and total lung capacity; mechanics of external respiration; lung compliance; respiratory resistances; Inhaled, alveolar and exhaled air; gases exchanges through the alveolo-capillary barrier; gases transport in the blood; blood flow through the lungs; ventilation-perfusion relationships; regulation of respiration.
Functional anatomy; blood flow through the kidney; glomerulus and glomerular filtration; tubular reabsorption and secretion; clearance; urinary constituents; regulation of the kidney functions; micturition.
Functional anatomy; hormonal and nervous control of digestive functions; motility of digestive tract: mastication, deglutition, gastric and intestinal motility; defecation; secretive functions: salivary, gastric, intestinal, pancreatic and bile; digestive and absorption processes.
SKELETAL MUSCLE AND NEUROPHYSIOLOGY
Methods for studying the functions of the central nervous system
Organization of the spinal cord; spinal reflexes
Organization of the brainstem; vestibular system; posture
Sensory systems: somatosensory system, visual system
Associative cortex, higher order cognitive functions
Cerebellum, basal ganglia, motor cortex
Neuroscienze, a cura di Dale Purves, Casa Editrice Zanichelli, II edizione
Assessment methods and criteria